Laws of Cricket

Preamble to the Laws
Cricket is a game that owes much of its unique appeal to the fact that it should be played not only within its Laws but also within the Spirit of the Game.Any action which is seen to abuse this spirit causes injury to the game itself. The major responsibility for ensuring the spirit of fair play rests with the captains.1. There are two Laws which place the responsibility for the team’s conduct firmly on the captain.Responsibility of captainsThe captains are responsible at all times for ensuring that play is conducted within the Spirit of the Game as well as within the Laws.Player’s conductIn the event of a player failing to comply with instructions by an umpire, or criticising by word or action the decisions of an umpire, or showing dissent, or generally behaving in a manner which might bring the game into disrepute, the umpire concerned shall in the first place report the matter to the other umpire and to the player’s captain, and instruct the latter to take action.2. Fair and unfair playAccording to the Laws the umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play.The umpires may intervene at any time and it is the responsibility of the captain to take action where required.3. The umpires are authorised to intervene in cases of:Time wastingDamaging the pitchDangerous or unfair bowlingTampering with the ballAny other action that they consider to be unfair4. The Spirit of the Game involves RESPECT for:Your opponentsYour own captain and teamThe role of the umpiresThe game and its traditional values5. It is against the Spirit of the Game:To dispute an umpire’s decision by word, action or gestureTo direct abusive language towards an opponent or umpireTo indulge in cheating or any sharp practice, for instance:(a) to appeal knowing that the batsman is not out(b) to advance towards an umpire in an aggressive manner when appealing(c) to seek to distract an opponent either verbally or by harassment with persistent clapping or unnecessary noise under the guise of enthusiasm and motivation of one’s own side6. ViolenceThere is no place for any act of violence on the field of play.7. PlayersCaptains and umpires together set the tone for the conduct of a cricket match. Every player is expected to make an important contribution to this.The players, umpires and scorers in a game of cricket may be of either gender and the Laws apply equally to both.The use, throughout the text, of pronouns indicating the male gender is purely for brevity. Except where specifically stated otherwise, every provision of the Laws is to be read as applying to women and girls equally as to men and boys.

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Law 1 (The Player)
1. Number of playersA match is played between two sides, each of eleven players, one of whom shall be captain.By agreement a match may be played between sides of fewer than, or more than, eleven players, but not more than eleven players may field at any time.2.Nomination of playersEach captain shall nominate his players in writing to one of the umpires before the toss. No player may be changed after the nomination without the consent of the opposing captain.3. CaptainIf at any time the captain is not available, a deputy shall act for him. (a) If a captain is not available during the period in which the toss is to take place, then the deputy must be responsible for the nomination of the players, if this has not already been done, and for the toss. See 2 above and Law 12.4 (The toss).(b) At any time after the nomination of the players, only a nominated player can act as deputy in discharging the duties and responsibilities of the captain as stated in these Laws.4. Responsibility of captainsThe captains are responsible at all times for ensuring that play is conducted within the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws. See The Preamble – The Spirit of Cricket and Law 42.1 (Fair and unfair play – responsibility of captains).

Law 2 (Substitutes and runners; batsman or fielder leaving the field; batsman retiring; batsman commencing innings
.Substitutes and Runners(a)If the umpires are satisfied that a nominated player has been injured or become ill since the nomination of the players, they shall allow that player to have(i) a substitute acting for him in the field.(ii) a runner when batting.Any injury or illness that occurs at any time after the nomination of the players until the conclusion of the match shall be allowable, irrespective of whether play is in progress or not.(b)The umpires shall have discretion to allow, for other wholly acceptable reasons, a substitute fielder or a runner to act for a nominated player, at the start of the match, or at any subsequent time.(c)A player wishing to change his shirt, boots, etc. shall leave the field to do so. No substitute shall be allowed for him.2.Objection to substitutesThe opposing captain shall have no right of objection to any player acting as a substitute on the field, nor as to where the substitute shall field. However, no substitute shall act as wicket-keeper. See 3 below.3.Restrictions on role of substitutesA substitute shall not be allowed to bat, bowl or act as wicket-keeper. Note also Law 1.3(b) (Captain).4.A player for whom a substitute has actedA nominated player is allowed to bat, bowl or field even though a substitute has previously acted for him.5.Fielder absent or leaving the fieldIf a fielder fails to take the field with his side at the start of the match or at any later time, or leaves the field during a session of play,(a)the umpire shall be informed of the reason for his absence.(b)he shall not thereafter come on to the field of play during a session of play without the consent of the umpire. See 6 below. The umpire shall give such consent as soon as is practicable.(c)if he is absent for 15 minutes of playing time or longer, he shall not be permitted to bowl thereafter, subject to (i), (ii) or (iii) below, until he has been on the field for at least the length of playing time for which he was absent.(i)Absence or penalty for time absent shall not be carried over into a new day’s play.(ii)If, in the case of a follow-on or forfeiture, a side fields for two consecutive innings, this restriction shall, subject to (i) above, continue as necessary into the second innings, but shall not otherwise be carried over into a new innings.(iii)The time lost for an unscheduled break in play shall be counted as time on the field of play for any fielder who comes on to the field at the resumption of play after the break. See Law 15.1 (An interval).6.Player returning without permissionIf a player comes on to the field of play in contravention of 5(b) above and comes into contact with the ball while it is in play,(a)the ball shall immediately become dead and the umpire shall award 5 penalty runs to the batting side. Additionally, runs completed by the batsmen shall be scored together with the run in progress if they had already crossed at the instant of the offence. The ball shall not count as one of the over.(b)the umpire shall inform the other umpire, the captain of the fielding side, the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for this action.(c)the umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and the player concerned.7.RunnerThe player acting as a runner for a batsman shall be a member of the batting side and shall, if possible, have already batted in that innings. The runner shall wear external protective equipment equivalent to that worn by the batsman for whom he runs and shall carry a bat.8.Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner(a)A batsman’s runner is subject to the Laws. He will be regarded as a batsman except where there are specific provisions for his role as a runner. See 7 above and Law 29.2 (Which is a batsman’s ground).(b)A batsman who has a runner will suffer the penalty for any infringement of the Laws by his runner as if he had been himself responsible for the infringement. In particular he will be out if his runner is out under any of Laws 33 (Handled the ball), 37 (Obstructing the field) or 38 (Run out).(c)When a batsman who has a runner is striker he remains himself subject to the Laws and will be liable to the penalties that any infringement of them demands. Additionally, if he is out of his ground when the wicket at the wicket-keeper’s end is fairly put down by the action of a fielder then, notwithstanding (b) above and irrespective of the position of the non-striker and the runner,(i)notwithstanding the provisions of Law 38.2(e), he is out Run out except as in (ii) below. Sections (a), (b), (c) and (d) of Law 38.2 (Batsman not Run out) shall apply.(ii)he is out Stumped if the delivery is not a No ball and the wicket is fairly put down by the wicket-keeper without the intervention of another fielder. However, Law 39.3 (Not out Stumped) shall apply.If he is thus dismissed, runs completed by the runner and the other batsman before the wicket is put down shall be disallowed. However, any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall stand. See Law 18.6 (Runs awarded for penalties). The non-striker shall return to his original end.(d)When a batsman who has a runner is not the striker(i)he remains subject to Laws 33 (Handled the ball) and 37 (Obstructing the field) but is otherwise out of the game.(ii)he shall stand where directed by the striker’s end umpire so as not to interfere with play.(iii)he will be liable, notwithstanding (i) above, to the penalty demanded by the Laws should he commit any act of unfair play.9.Batsman retiringA batsman may retire at any time during his innings when the ball is dead. The umpires, before allowing play to proceed shall be informed of the reason for a batsman retiring.(a) If a batsman retires because of illness, injury or any other unavoidable cause, he is entitled to resume his innings subject to (c) below. If for any reason he does not do so, his innings is to be recorded as ‘Retired – not out’.(b) If a batsman retires for any reason other than as in (a) above, he may resume his innings only with the consent of the opposing captain. If for any reason he does not resume his innings it is to be recorded as ‘Retired – out’.(c) If after retiring a batsman resumes his innings, it shall be only at the fall of a wicket or the retirement of another batsman.10.Commencement of a batsman’s inningsExcept at the start of a side’s innings, a batsman shall be considered to have commenced his innings when he first steps on to the field of play, provided Time has not been called. The innings of the opening batsmen, and that of any new batsman on the resumption of play after a call of Time, shall commence at the call of Play.

Law 3 (The umpires)

1.Appointment and attendanceBefore the match, two umpires shall be appointed, one for each end, to control the game as required by the Laws, with absolute impartiality. The umpires shall be present on the ground and report to the Executive of the ground at least 45 minutes before the scheduled start of each day’s play.2.Change of umpireAn umpire shall not be changed during the match, other than in exceptional circumstances, unless he is injured or ill. If there has to be a change of umpire, the replacement shall act only as striker’s end umpire unless the captains agree that he should take full responsibility as an umpire.3.Agreement with captainsBefore the toss the umpires shall(a) ascertain the hours of play and agree with the captains(i) the balls to be used during the match. See Law 5 (The ball).(ii) times and durations of intervals for meals and times for drinks intervals. See Law 15 (Intervals).(iii) the boundary of the field of play and allowances for boundaries. See Law 19 (Boundaries).(iv) any special conditions of play affecting the conduct of the match.(b) inform the scorers of agreements in (ii), (iii) and (iv) above.4.To inform captains and scorersBefore the toss the umpires shall agree between themselves and inform both captains and both scorers(i) which clock or watch and back-up time piece is to be used during the match.(ii) whether or not any obstacle within the field of play is to be regarded as a boundary. See Law 19 (Boundaries).5.The wickets, creases and boundariesBefore the toss and during the match, the umpires shall satisfy themselves that(a) the wickets are properly pitched. See Law 8 (The wickets).(b) the creases are correctly marked. See Law 9 (The bowling, popping and return creases).(c) the boundary of the field of play complies with the requirements of Laws 19.1 (The boundary of the field of play) and 19.2 (Defining the boundary – boundary marking).6. Conduct of the game, implements and equipmentBefore the toss and during the match, the umpires shall satisfy themselves that(a) the conduct of the game is strictly in accordance with the Laws.(b) the implements of the game conform to the following(i) Law 5 (The ball)(ii) externally visible requirements of Law 6 (The bat) and Appendix E.(iii) either Laws 8.2 (Size of stumps) and 8.3 (The bails) or, if appropriate, Law 8.4 (Junior cricket).(c) (i) no player uses equipment other than that permitted. See Appendix D. Note particularly therein the interpretation of ‘protective helmet’.(ii) the wicket-keeper’s gloves comply with the requirements of Law 40.2 (Gloves).7. Fair and unfair playThe umpires shall be the sole judges of fair and unfair play.8. Fitness for playVideo: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 3 (a) It is solely for the umpires together to decide whether either conditions of ground, weather or lightor exceptional circumstancesmean that it would be dangerous or unreasonable for play to take place.Conditions shall not be regarded as either dangerous or unreasonable merely because they are not ideal.(b) Conditions shall be regarded as dangerous if there is actual and foreseeable risk to the safety of any player or umpire. (c) Conditions shall be regarded as unreasonable if, although posing no risk to safety, it would not be sensible for play to proceed.9. Suspension of play in dangerous or unreasonable conditions(a) All references to ground include the pitch. See Law 7.1 (Area of pitch).(b) If at any time the umpires together agree that the conditions of ground, weather or light, or any other circumstances are dangerous or unreasonable, they shall immediately suspend play, or not allow play to start or to recommence.(c) When there is a suspension of play it is the responsibility of the umpires to monitor conditions. They shall make inspections as often as appropriate, unaccompanied by any players or officials. Immediately the umpires together agree that the conditions are no longer dangerous or unreasonable they shall call upon the players to resume play.10. Position of umpiresEach umpire shall stand where he can best see any act upon which his decision may be required.Subject to this over-riding consideration, the bowler’s end umpire shall stand where he does not interfere with either the bowler’s run up or the striker’s view.The striker’s end umpire may elect to stand on the off side instead of the on side of the pitch, provided he informs the captain of the fielding side, the striker and the other umpire of his intention to do so.11. Umpires changing endsThe umpires shall change ends after each side has had one completed innings. See Law 12.3 (Completed innings).12. Consultation between umpiresAll disputes shall be determined by the umpires. The umpires shall consult with each other whenever necessary. See also Law 27.6 (Consultation by umpires).13. Informing the umpiresThroughout the Laws, wherever the umpires are to receive information from captains or other players, it will be sufficient for one umpire to be so informed and for him to inform the other umpire.14. Signals(a) The following code of signals shall be used by umpires.(i) Signals made while the ball is in playDead ball – by crossing and re-crossing the wrists below the waist.No ball – by extending one arm horizontally.Out – by raising an index finger above the head. (If not out, the umpire shall call Not out.)Wide – by extending both arms horizontally.(ii) When the ball is dead, the bowler’s end umpire shall repeat the signals above, with the exception of the signal for Out, to the scorers.(iii) The signals listed below shall be made to the scorers only when the ball is dead.Boundary 4 – by waving an arm from side to side finishing with the arm across the chestBoundary 6 – by raising both arms above the head.Bye – by raising an open hand above the head.Commencement – by pointing to a raised wrist with the of last hour other hand.Five penalty runs awarded to the batting side – by repeated tapping of one shoulder with the opposite hand.Five penalty runs awarded to the fielding side – by placing one hand on the opposite shoulder.Leg bye – by touching a raised knee with the hand.New ball – by holding the ball above the head.Revoke – by touching both shoulders, each with last signal the opposite hand.Short run – by bending one arm upwards and touching the nearer shoulder with the tips of the fingers.All these signals are to be made by the bowler’s end umpire except that for Short run, which is to be signalled by the umpire at the end where short running occurs. However, the bowler’s end umpire shall be responsible both for the final signal of Short run to the scorers and for informing them as to the number of runs to be recorded.(b) The umpire shall wait until each signal to the scorers has been separately acknowledged by a scorer before allowing play to proceed.15. Correctness of scoresConsultation between umpires and scorers on doubtful points is essential. The umpires shall, throughout the match, satisfy themselves as to the correctness of the number of runs scored, the wickets that have fallen and, where appropriate, the number of overs bowled. They shall agree these with the scorers at least at every interval, other than a drinks interval, and at the conclusion of the match. See Laws 4.2 (Correctness of scores), 21.8 (Correctness of result) and 21.10 (Result not to be changed).

Law 4 (The scorers)


1. Appointment of scorersTwo scorers shall be appointed to record all runs scored, all wickets taken and, where appropriate, number of overs bowled.2. Correctness of scoresThe scorers shall frequently check to ensure that their records agree. They shall agree with the umpires, at least at every interval, other than drinks intervals, and at the conclusion of the match, the runs scored, the wickets that have fallen and, where appropriate, the number of overs bowled. See Law 3.15 (Correctness of scores).3. Acknowledging signalsThe scorers shall accept all instructions and signals given to them by umpires. They shall immediately acknowledge each separate signal.
Law 5 (The Ball)


1. Weight and sizeThe ball, when new, shall weigh not less than 5½ ounces/155.9 g, nor more than 5¾ ounces/163 g, and shall measure not less than 813/16 in/22.4 cm, nor more than 9 in/22.9 cm in circumference.2. Approval and control of balls(a) All balls to be used in the match, having been approved by the umpires and captains, shall be in the possession of the umpires before the toss and shall remain under their control throughout the match.(b) The umpire shall take possession of the ball in use at the fall of each wicket, at the start of any interval and at any interruption of play.3. New ballUnless an agreement to the contrary has been made before the match, either captain may demand a new ball at the start of each innings.4. New ball in match of more than one day’s durationIn a match of more than one day’s duration, the captain of the fielding side may demand a new ball after the prescribed number of overs has been bowled with the old one. The Governing Body for cricket in the country concerned shall decide the number of overs applicable in that country, which shall not be less than 75 overs.The umpire shall inform the other umpire and indicate to the batsmen and the scorers whenever a new ball is taken into play.5. Ball lost or becoming unfit for playIf, during play, the ball cannot be found or recovered or the umpires agree that it has become unfit for play through normal use, the umpires shall replace it with a ball which has had wear comparable with that which the previous ball had received before the need for its replacement. When the ball is replaced the umpire shall inform the batsmen and the fielding captain.6. SpecificationsThe specifications as described in 1 above shall apply to men’s cricket only. The following specifications will apply to (i) Women’s cricketWeight: from 415/16 ounces/140 g to 55/16 ounces 151 gCircumference: from 8¼ in/21.0 cm to 87/8 in/22.5 cm(ii) Junior cricket – Under 13Weight: from 411/16 ounces/133 g to 51/16 ounces 144 gCircumference: from 81/16 in/20.5 cm to 811/16 in/22.0 cm
Law 6 (Bat)


1. The batThe bat consists of two parts, a handle and a blade.2. MeasurementsAll provisions in sections 3 to 6 below are subject to the measurements and restrictions stated in Appendix E.3. The handle(a) One end of the handle is inserted into a recess in the blade as a means of joining the handle and the blade. The part of the handle that is then wholly outside the blade is defined to be the upper portion of the handle. It is a straight shaft for holding the bat. The remainder of the handle is its lower portion used purely for joining the blade and the handle together. It is not part of the blade but, solely in interpreting 5 and 6 below, references to the blade shall be considered to extend also to the lower portion of the handle where relevant.(b) The handle is to be made principally of cane and/or wood, glued where necessary and bound with twine along the upper portion. (c) Providing 7 below is not contravened, the upper portion may be covered with materials solely to provide a surface suitable for gripping. Such covering is an addition and is not part of the bat. Note, however, 8 below.(d) Notwithstanding 4(c) and 5 below, both the twine binding and the covering grip may extend beyond the junction of the upper and lower portions, to cover part of the shoulders as defined in Appendix E.4. The blade(a) The blade comprises the whole of the bat apart from the handle as defined above. The blade has a face, a back, a toe, sides and shoulders. See Appendix E.(b) The blade shall consist solely of wood.(c) No material may be placed on or inserted into either the blade or the lower portion of the handle other than as permitted in 3(d) above and 5 and 6 below, together with the minimal adhesives or adhesive tape used solely for fixing these items, or for fixing the handle to the blade.5. Covering the bladeAll bats may have commercial identifications on the blade. Type A and Type B bats may have no other covering on the blade except as permitted in 6 below. Type C bats may have a cloth covering on the blade. This may be treated as specified in 6 below. Such covering is additional to the blade and is not part of the bat. Note, however, 8 below.6. Protection and repairProviding neither 4 above nor 7 below is contravened,(a) solely for the purposes of either (i) protection from surface damage to the face, sides and shoulders of the bladeor (ii) repair to the blade after damagematerial that is not rigid, either at the time of its application to the blade or subsequently, may be placed on these surfaces. Any such material shall not extend over any part of the back of the blade except in the case of (ii) above and then only when it is applied as a continuous wrapping covering the damaged area.(b) solid material may be inserted into the blade for repair after damage other than surface damage. Additionally, for protection from damage, for Types B and C, material may be inserted at the toe and/or along the sides, parallel to the face of the blade.The only material permitted for any insertion is wood with minimal essential adhesives.(c) to prevent damage to the toe, material may be placed on that part of the blade but shall not extend over any part of the face, back or sides of the blade.(d) the surface of the blade may be treated with non-solid materials to improve resistance to moisture penetration and/or mask natural blemishes in the appearance of the wood. Save for the purpose of giving a homogeneous appearance by masking natural blemishes, such treatment must not materially alter the colour of the blade.Any materials referred to in (a), (b), (c) or (d) above are additional to the blade and not part of the bat. Note, however, 8 below.7. Damage to the ball(a) For any part of the bat, covered or uncovered, the hardness of the constituent materials and the surface texture thereof shall not be such that either or both could cause unacceptable damage to the ball.(b) Any material placed on any part of the bat, for whatever purpose, shall similarly not be such that it could cause unacceptable damage to the ball.(c) For the purposes of this Law, unacceptable damage is deterioration greater than normal wear and tear caused by the ball striking the uncovered wooden surface of the blade.8. Contact with the ballIn these Laws, (a) reference to the bat shall imply that the bat is held in the batsman’s hand or a glove worn on his hand, unless stated otherwise.(b) contact between the ball and either (i) the bat itselfor (ii) the batsman’s hand holding the bator (iii) any part of a glove worn on the batsman’s hand holding the bator (iv) any additional materials permitted under 3, 5 or 6 above shall be regarded as the ball striking or touching the bat or being struck by the bat.

Law 7 (Pitch)


1. Area of pitchThe pitch is a rectangular area of the ground 22 yards/20.12 m in length and 10 ft/3.05 m in width. It is bounded at either end by the bowling creases and on either side by imaginary lines, one each side of the imaginary line joining the centres of the two middle stumps, each parallel to it and 5 ft/1.52 m from it. See Laws 8.1 (Width and pitching) and 9.2 (The bowling crease).2. Fitness of pitch for playThe umpires shall be the sole judges of the fitness of the pitch for play. See Laws 3.8 (Fitness for play) and 3.9 (Suspension of play in dangerous or unreasonable conditions)3. Selection and preparationBefore the match, the Ground Authority shall be responsible for the selection and preparation of the pitch. During the match, the umpires shall control its use and maintenance.4. Changing the pitchThe pitch shall not be changed during the match unless the umpires decide that it is dangerous or unreasonable for play to continue on it and then only with the consent of both captains.5. Non-turf pitchesIn the event of a non-turf pitch being used, the artificial surface shall conform to the following measurements.Length – a minimum of 58 ft/17.68 mWidth – a minimum of 6 ft/1.83 mSee Law 10.8 (Non-turf pitches).

Law 8 (The wickets)

1. Width and pitchingTwo sets of wickets shall be pitched opposite and parallel to each other at a distance of 22 yards/20.12 m between the centres of the two middle stumps. Each set shall be 9 in/22.86 cm wide and shall consist of three wooden stumps with two wooden bails on top. See Appendix A.2. Size of stumpsThe tops of the stumps shall be 28 in/71.1 cm above the playing surface and shall be dome shaped except for the bail grooves. The portion of a stump above the playing surface shall be cylindrical apart from the domed top, with circular section of diameter not less than 1⅜ in/3.49 cm nor more than 1½ in/3.81 cm. See Appendix A.3. The bails(a) The bails, when in position on top of the stumps,(i) shall not project more than ½ in/1.27 cm above them.(ii) shall fit between the stumps without forcing them out of the vertical.(b) Each bail shall conform to the following specifications. See Appendix A.Overall length 45/16 in/10.95 cmLength of barrel 21/8 in /5.40 cmLonger spigot 1⅜ in/3.49 cmShorter spigot 13/16 in/2.06 cm4. Junior cricketIn junior cricket, the same definitions of the wickets shall apply subject to the following measurements being used.Width 8 in/20.32 cmPitched for under 13 21 yards/19.20 mPitched for under 11 20 yards/18.29 mPitched for under 9 18 yards/16.46 mHeight above playing surface 27 in/68.58 cmEach stumpDiameter not less than 1¼ in/3.18 cmnor more than 1⅜ in/3.49 cmEach bailOverall 313/16 in/9.68 cmBarrel 113/16 in/4.60 cmLonger spigot 1¼ in/3.18 cmShorter spigot ¾ in/1.91 cm5. Dispensing with bailsThe umpires may agree to dispense with the use of bails, if necessary. If they so agree then no bails shall be used at either end. The use of bails shall be resumed as soon as conditions permit. See Law 28.4 (Dispensing with bails).

Law 9 (The bowling, popping and return creases)


1. The creasesA bowling crease, a popping crease and two return creases shall be marked in white, as set out in 2, 3 and 4 below, at each end of the pitch. See Appendix B.2. The bowling creaseThe bowling crease, which is the back edge of the crease marking, shall be the line through the centres of the three stumps at that end. It shall be 8 ft 8 in/2.64 m in length, with the stumps in the centre.3. The popping creaseThe popping crease, which is the back edge of the crease marking, shall be in front of and parallel to the bowling crease and shall be 4 ft/1.22 m from it. The popping crease shall be marked to a minimum of 6 ft/1.83 m on either side of the imaginary line joining the centres of the two middle stumps and shall be considered to be unlimited in length.4. The return creasesThe return creases, which are the inside edges of the crease markings, shall be at right angles to the popping crease at a distance of 4 ft 4 in/1.32 m either side of the imaginary line joining the centres of the two middle stumps. Each return crease shall be marked from the popping crease to a minimum of 8 ft/2.44 m behind it and shall be considered to be unlimited in length.

Law 10 (Preparation and maintenance of the playing area)


1. RollingThe pitch shall not be rolled during the match except as permitted in (a) and (b) below.(a) Frequency and duration of rollingDuring the match the pitch may be rolled at the request of the captain of the batting side, for a period of not more than 7 minutes, before the start of each innings, other than the first innings of the match, and before the start of each subsequent day’s play. See (d) below.(b) Rolling after a delayed startIn addition to the rolling permitted above, if, after the toss and before the first innings of the match, the start is delayed, the captain of the batting side may request that the pitch be rolled for not more than 7 minutes. However, if the umpires together agree that the delay has had no significant effect on the state of the pitch, they shall refuse such request for rolling of the pitch.(c) Choice of rollersIf there is more than one roller available the captain of the batting side shall choose which one is to be used.(d) Timing of permitted rollingThe rolling permitted (maximum 7 minutes) before play begins on any day shall be started not more than 30 minutes before the time scheduled or rescheduled for play to begin. The captain of the batting side may, however, delay the start of such rolling until not less than 10 minutes before the time scheduled or rescheduled for play to begin, should he so wish.(e) Insufficient time to complete rollingIf, when a captain declares an innings closed, or forfeits an innings, or enforces the follow-on, there is insufficient time for the pitch to be rolled for 7 minutes, or if there is insufficient time for any other reason, the batting captain shall nevertheless be permitted to exercise his option to have such rolling. The time by which the start of the innings is delayed on that account shall be taken out of normal playing time.2. Clearing debris from the pitch(a) The pitch shall be cleared of any debris(i) before the start of each day’s play. This shall be after the completion of mowing and before any rolling, not earlier than 30 minutes nor later than 10 minutes before the time or any rescheduled time for start of play.(ii) between innings. This shall precede rolling if any is to take place.(iii) at all intervals for meals.(b) The clearance of debris in (a) above shall be done by sweeping, except where the umpires consider that this may be detrimental to the surface of the pitch. In this case the debris must be cleared from that area by hand, without sweeping.(c) In addition to (a) above, debris may be cleared from the pitch by hand, without sweeping, before mowing and whenever either umpire considers it necessary.3. Mowing(a) Responsibility for mowingAll mowings which are carried out before the match shall be the sole responsibility of the Ground Authority.All subsequent mowings shall be carried out under the supervision of the umpires.(b) The pitch and outfieldIn order that throughout the match the ground conditions should be as nearly the same for both sides as possible,(i) the pitch (ii) the outfield shall be mown on each day of the match on which play is expected to take place, if ground and weather conditions permit.If, for reasons other than conditions of ground or weather, complete mowing of the outfield is not possible, the Ground Authority shall notify the captains and umpires of the procedure to be adopted for such mowing during the match.(c) Timing of mowing(i) Mowing of the pitch on any day shall be completed not later than 30 minutes before the time scheduled or rescheduled for play to begin on that day, before any sweeping prior to rolling. If necessary, debris may be removed from the pitch before mowing, by hand, without sweeping. See 2(c) above.(ii) Mowing of the outfield on any day shall be completed not later than 15 minutes before the time scheduled or rescheduled for play to begin on that day.4. Watering the pitchThe pitch shall not be watered during the match.5. Re-marking creasesCreases shall be re-marked whenever either umpire considers it necessary.6. Maintenance of footholesThe umpires shall ensure that the holes made by the bowler and batsmen are cleaned out and dried whenever necessary to facilitate play.In matches of more than one day’s duration, the umpires shall allow, if necessary, the re-turfing of footholes made by the bowler in his delivery stride, or the use of quick-setting fillings for the same purpose.7. Securing of footholds and maintenance of pitchDuring play, umpires shall allow the players to secure their footholds by the use of sawdust provided that no damage to the pitch is caused and that Law 42 (Fair and unfair play) is not contravened.8. Non-turf pitchesWherever appropriate, the provisions set out in 1 to 7 above shall apply.
Law 11 (Covering the pitch)

1. Before the matchThe use of covers before the match is the responsibility of the Ground Authority and may include full covering if required.However, the Ground Authority shall grant suitable facility to the captains to inspect the pitch before the nomination of their players and to the umpires to discharge their duties as laid down in Laws 3 (The umpires), 7 (The pitch), 8 (The wickets), 9 (The bowling, popping and return creases) and 10 (Preparation and maintenance of the playing area).2. During the matchThe pitch shall not be completely covered during the match unless provided otherwise by regulations or by agreement before the toss.3. Covering the bowlers’ run upsWhenever possible, the bowlers’ run ups shall be covered in inclement weather, in order to keep them dry. Unless there is agreement for full covering under 2 above the covers so used shall not extend further than 5 ft/1.52 m in front of each popping crease.4. Removal of covers(a) If after the toss the pitch is covered overnight, the covers shall be removed in the morning at the earliest possible moment on each day that play is expected to take place.(b) If covers are used during the day as protection from inclement weather, or if inclement weather delays the removal of overnight covers, they shall be removed promptly as soon as conditions allow.

Law 12 (Innings)

1. Number of innings(a) A match shall be one or two innings for each side according to agreement reached before the match.(b) It may be agreed to limit any innings to a number of overs or to a period of time. If such an agreement is made then(i) in a one innings match a similar agreement shall apply to both innings.(ii) in a two innings match similar agreements shall apply toeither the first innings of each sideor the second innings of each sideor both innings of each side.For both one innings and two innings matches, the agreement must also include criteria for determining the result when neither of Laws 21.1 (A Win – two innings match) or 21.2 (A Win – one innings match) applies.2. Alternate inningsIn a two innings match each side shall take their innings alternately except in the cases provided for in Law 13 (The follow-on) or in Law 14.2 (Forfeiture of an innings).3. Completed inningsA side’s innings is to be considered as completed if(a) the side is all outor (b) at the fall of a wicket or the retirement of a batsman, further balls remain to be bowled but no further batsman is available to come inor (c) the captain declares the innings closedor (d) the captain forfeits the inningsor (e) in the case of an agreement under 1(b) above,either (i) the prescribed number of overs has been bowledor (ii) the prescribed time has expiredas appropriate.4. The tossVideo: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 12
The captains shall toss for the choice of innings, on the field of play and in the presence of one or both of the umpires, not earlier than 30 minutes, nor later than 15 minutes before the scheduled or any rescheduled time for the match to start. Note, however, the provisions of Law 1.3 (Captain).5. Decision to be notifiedAs soon as the toss is completed, the captain of the side winning the toss shall notify the opposing captain and the umpires of his decision to bat or to field. Once notified, the decision cannot be changed.
Law 13 (The follow-on)

1. Lead on first innings(a) In a two innings match of 5 days or more, the side which bats first and leads by at least 200 runs shall have the option of requiring the other side to follow their innings.(b) The same option shall be available in two innings matches of shorter duration with the minimum leads as follows.(i) 150 runs in a match of 3 or 4 days;(ii) 100 runs in a 2-day match;(iii) 75 runs in a 1-day match.2. NotificationA captain shall notify the opposing captain and the umpires of his intention to take up this option. Law 10.1(e) (Insufficient time to complete rolling) shall apply.3. First day’s play lostIf no play takes place on the first day of a match of more than one day’s duration, 1 above shall apply in accordance with the number of days remaining from the actual start of the match. The day on which play first commences shall count as a whole day for this purpose, irrespective of the time at which play starts.Play will have taken place as soon as, after the call of Play, the first over has started. See Law 22.2 (Start of an over).
Law 14 (Declaration and forfeiture)

1. Time of declarationThe captain of the side batting may declare an innings closed, when the ball is dead, at any time during the innings.2. Forfeiture of an inningsA captain may forfeit either of his side’s innings at any time before the commencement of that innings. A forfeited innings shall be considered to be a completed innings.3. NotificationA captain shall notify the opposing captain and the umpires of his decision to declare or to forfeit an innings. Law 10.1(e) (Insufficient time to complete rolling) shall apply.
Law 15 (Intervals)

1. An intervalThe following shall be classed as intervals.(i) The period between close of play on one day and the start of the next day’s play.(ii) Intervals between innings.(iii) Intervals for meals.(iv) Intervals for drinks.(v) Any other agreed interval.All these intervals shall be considered as scheduled breaks for the purposes of Law 2.5 (Fielder absent or leaving the field).2. Agreement of intervals(a) Before the toss(i) the hours of play shall be established.(ii) except as in (b) below, the timing and duration of intervals for meals shall be agreed.(iii) the timing and duration of any other interval under 1(v) above shall be agreed.(b) In a one-day match no specific time need be agreed for the tea interval. It may be agreed instead to take this interval between innings.(c) Intervals for drinks may not be taken during the last hour of the match, as defined in Law 16.6 (Last hour of match – number of overs). Subject to this limitation, the captains and umpires shall agree the times for such intervals, if any, before the toss and on each subsequent day not later than 10 minutes before play is scheduled to start. See also Law 3.3 (Agreement with captains).3. Duration of intervals(a) An interval for lunch or tea shall be of the duration agreed under 2(a) above, taken from the call of Time before the interval until the call of Play on resumption after the interval.(b) An interval between innings shall be 10 minutes from the close of an innings until the call of Play for the start of the next innings, except as in 4, 6 and 7 below.4. No allowance for interval between inningsIn addition to the provisions of 6 and 7 below,(a) if an innings ends when 10 minutes or less remains before the time agreed for close of play on any day, there shall be no further play on that day. No change shall be made to the time for the start of play on the following day on account of the 10 minute interval between innings.(b) if a captain declares an innings closed during an interruption in play of more than 10 minutes duration, no adjustment shall be made to the time for resumption of play on account of the 10 minute interval between innings, which shall be considered as included in the interruption. Law 10.1(e) (Insufficient time to complete rolling) shall apply.(c) if a captain declares an innings closed during any interval other than an interval for drinks, the interval shall be of the agreed duration and shall be considered to include the 10 minute interval between innings. Law 10.1(e) (Insufficient time to complete rolling) shall apply.5. Changing agreed times of intervalsIf, at any time during the match,either playing time is lost through adverse conditions of ground, weather or light or in exceptional circumstances, or the players have occasion to leave the field other than at a scheduled interval,the time of the lunch interval or of the tea interval may be changed if the two umpires and both captains so agree, providing the requirements of 3 above and 6, 7, 8 and 9(c) below are not contravened.6. Changing agreed time for lunch interval(a) If an innings ends when 10 minutes or less remains before the agreed time for lunch, the interval shall be taken immediately. It shall be of the agreed length and shall be considered to include the 10 minute interval between innings.(b) If because of adverse conditions of ground, weather or light, or in exceptional circumstances, a stoppage occurs when 10 minutes or less remains before the agreed time for lunch, then, notwithstanding 5 above, the interval shall be taken immediately. It shall be of the agreed length. Play shall resume at the end of this interval or as soon after as conditions permit.(c) If the players have occasion to leave the field for any reason when more than 10 minutes remains before the agreed time for lunch then, unless the umpires and captains together agree to alter it, lunch will be taken at the agreed time.7. Changing agreed time for tea interval(a) (i) If an innings ends when 30 minutes or less remains before the agreed time for tea, the interval shall be taken immediately. It shall be of the agreed length and shall be considered to include the 10 minute interval between innings.(ii) If, when 30 minutes remains before the agreed time for tea, an interval between innings is already in progress, play will resume at the end of the 10 minute interval, if conditions permit.(b) (i) If, because of adverse conditions of ground, weather or light, or in exceptional circumstances, a stoppage occurs when 30 minutes or less remains before the agreed time for tea, then unlesseither there is an agreement to change the time for tea, as permitted in 5 aboveor the captains agree to forgo the tea interval, as permitted in 10 belowthe interval shall be taken immediately. The interval shall be of the agreed length. Play shall resume at the end of the interval or as soon after as conditions permit.(ii) If a stoppage is already in progress when 30 minutes remains before the agreed time for tea, 5 above will apply.8. Tea interval – 9 wickets downIf either 9 wickets are already down when 2 minutes remains to the agreed time for tea,or the 9th wicket falls within this 2 minutes, or at any time up to and including the final ball of the over in progress at the agreed time for tea,then, notwithstanding the provisions of Law 16.5(b) (Completion of an over), tea will not be taken until the end of the over that is in progress 30 minutes after the originally agreed time for tea, unless the players have cause to leave the field of play or the innings is completed earlier.For the purposes of this section of Law, the retirement of a batsman is not to be considered equivalent to the fall of a wicket.9. Intervals for drinks(a) If on any day the captains agree that there shall be intervals for drinks, the option to take such drinks shall be available to either side. Each interval shall be kept as short as possible and in any case shall not exceed 5 minutes.(b) Unless, as permitted in 10 below, the captains agree to forgo it, a drinks interval shall be taken at the end of the over in progress when the agreed time is reached. If, however, a wicket falls or a batsman retires within 5 minutes of the agreed time then drinks shall be taken immediately.No other variation in the timing of drinks intervals shall be permitted except as provided for in (c) below.(c) If an innings ends or the players have to leave the field of play for any other reason within 30 minutes of the agreed time for a drinks interval, the umpires and captains together may rearrange the timing of drinks intervals in that session.10. Agreement to forgo intervalsAt any time during the match, the captains may agree to forgo the tea interval or any of the drinks intervals. The umpires shall be informed of the decision. When play is in progress, the batsmen at the wicket may deputise for their captain in making an agreement to forgo a drinks interval in that session.11. Scorers to be informedThe umpires shall ensure that the scorers are informed of all agreements about hours of play and intervals and of any changes made thereto as permitted under this Law.

Law 16 (Start of play; cessation of play)

1. Call of PlayThe bowler’s end umpire shall call Play at the start of the match and on the resumption of play after any interval or interruption.2. Call of TimeThe bowler’s end umpire shall call Time when the ball is dead on the cessation of play before any interval or interruption and at the conclusion of the match. See Laws 23.3 (Call of Over or Time) and 27 (Appeals).3. Removal of bailsAfter the call of Time, the bails shall be removed from both wickets.4. Starting a new overAnother over shall always be started at any time during the match, unless an interval is to be taken in the circumstances set out in 5 below, if, walking at his normal pace, the umpire has arrived at his position behind the stumps at the bowler’s end before the time agreed for the next interval, or for the close of play, has been reached.5. Completion of an overOther than at the end of the match,(a) if the agreed time for an interval is reached during an over, the over shall be completed before the interval is taken, except as provided for in (b) below(b) when less than 2 minutes remains before the time agreed for the next interval, the interval will be taken immediately ifeither (i) a batsman is dismissed or retiresor (ii) the players have occasion to leave the fieldwhether this occurs during an over or at the end of an over. Except at the end of an innings, if an over is thus interrupted it shall be completed on the resumption of play.6. Last hour of match – number of oversWhen one hour of playing time of the match remains, according to the agreed hours of play, the over in progress shall be completed. The next over shall be the first of a minimum of 20 overs which must be bowled, provided that a result is not reached earlier and provided that there is no interval or interruption in play.The bowler’s end umpire shall indicate the commencement of this 20 overs to the players and to the scorers. The period of play thereafter shall be referred to as the last hour, whatever its actual duration.7. Last hour of match – interruptions of playIf there is an interruption in play during the last hour of the match, the minimum number of overs to be bowled shall be reduced from 20 as follows.(a) The time lost for an interruption is counted from the call of Time until the time for resumption as decided by the umpires.(b) One over shall be deducted for every complete 3 minutes of time lost.(c) In the case of more than one such interruption, the minutes lost shall not be aggregated; the calculation shall be made for each interruption separately.(d) If, when one hour of playing time remains, an interruption is already in progress(i) only the time lost after this moment shall be counted in the calculation(ii) the over in progress at the start of the interruption shall be completed on resumption and shall not count as one of the minimum number of overs to be bowled.(e) If, after the start of the last hour, an interruption occurs during an over, the over shall be completed on resumption of play. The two part-overs shall between them count as one over of the minimum number to be bowled.8. Last hour of match – intervals between inningsIf an innings ends so that a new innings is to be started during the last hour of the match, the interval starts with the end of the innings and is to end 10 minutes later.(a) If this interval is already in progress at the start of the last hour then, to determine the number of overs to be bowled in the new innings, calculations are to be made as set out in 7 above.(b) If the innings ends after the last hour has started, two calculations are to be made, as set out in (c) and (d) below. The greater of the numbers yielded by these two calculations is to be the minimum number of overs to be bowled in the new innings.(c) Calculation based on overs remaining.(i) At the conclusion of the innings, the number of overs that remain to be bowled, of the minimum in the last hour, to be noted.(ii) If this is not a whole number it is to be rounded up to the next whole number.(iii) Three overs, for the interval, to be deducted from the resulting number to determine the number of overs still to be bowled.(d) Calculation based on time remaining.(i) At the conclusion of the innings, the time remaining until the agreed time for close of play to be noted.(ii) 10 minutes, for the interval, to be deducted from this time to determine the playing time remaining.(iii) A calculation to be made of one over for every complete 3 minutes of the playing time remaining, plus one more over if a further part of 3 minutes remains.9. Conclusion of matchThe match is concluded(a) as soon as a result as defined in sections 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5(a) of Law 21 (The result) is reached.(b) as soon as both(i) the minimum number of overs for the last hour are completedand (ii) the agreed time for close of play is reachedunless a result is reached earlier.(c) in the case of an agreement under Law 12.1(b) (Number of innings), as soon as the final innings is completed as defined in Law 12.3(e) (Completed innings).(d) if, without the match being concluded, either as in (a) or in (b) or in (c) above, the players leave the field for adverse conditions of ground, weather or light, or in exceptional circumstances, and no further play is possible.10. Completion of last over of matchThe over in progress at the close of play on the final day shall be completed unless either (i) a result has been reachedor (ii) the players have occasion to leave the field. In this case there shall be no resumption of play except in the circumstances of Law 21.9 (Mistakes in scoring) and the match shall be at an end.11. Bowler unable to complete an over during last hour of matchIf, for any reason, a bowler is unable to complete an over during the last hour, Law 22.8 (Bowler incapacitated or suspended during an over) shall apply. The separate parts of such an over shall count as one over of the minimum to be bowled.
Law 17 (Practice on the field)

1. Practice on the pitchThere shall be no practice of any kind, at any time on any day of the match, on the pitch or on either of the two strips parallel and immediately adjacent to the pitch, one on either side of it, each of the same dimensions as the pitch.2. Practice on the rest of the squareThere shall be no practice of any kind on any other part of the square on any day of the match, except before the start of play or after the close of play on that day. Practice before the start of play(a) must not continue later than 30 minutes before the scheduled time or any rescheduled time for play to start on that day.(b) shall not be allowed if the umpires consider that it will significantly impair the surface of the square.3. Practice on the outfieldVideo: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 17
(a) All forms of practice are permitted on the outfieldbefore the start of play or after the close of play on any dayor during the lunch and tea intervalsor between inningsproviding the umpires are satisfied that such practice will not cause significant deterioration in the condition of the outfield.Such practice must not continue later than 5 minutes before the time for play to commence or to resume.(b) Between the call of Play and the call of Time (i) no one may participate in practice of any kind on the field of play, even from outside the boundary, except the fielders as defined in Appendix D and the batsmen at the wicket. Any player involved in practice contravening this Law shall be considered to have himself contravened the Law and will be subject to the penalty in 4 below.(ii) there shall be no bowling or batting practice on the outfield. Bowling a ball, using arm action only, to a player in the outfield is not to be regarded as bowling practice but shall be subject to (b)(iii) and (c) below. However, a bowler deliberately bowling a ball thus on to the ground will contravene Law 42.3 (The match ball – changing its condition).(iii) other practice shall be permitted, subject to the restriction in (i) and (ii) above, either at the fall of a wicket.or during other gaps in play for legitimate activities, such as adjustment of the sight-screen.(c) (i) Practice at the fall of a wicket must cease as soon as the incoming batsman steps on to the square.(ii) Practice during other legitimate gaps in play must not continue beyond the minimum time required for the activity causing the gap in play.If these time restrictions are not observed, umpires shall apply the procedures of Law 42.9 (Time wasting by the fielding side).4. Penalty for contraventionIf a player contravenes 1, 2, 3(b)(i) or 3(b)(ii) above, he shall not be allowed to bowl untileither at least one hour has elapsedor there has been at least 30 minutes of playing time since the contravention, whichever is sooner. If the contravention is by the bowler during an over, he shall not be allowed to complete that over. It shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.5. Trial run upA bowler is permitted to have a trial run up subject to the provisions of 3 and 4 above.
Law 18 (Scoring runs)

1. A runThe score shall be reckoned by runs. A run is scored(a) so often as the batsmen, at any time while the ball is in play, have crossed and made good their ground from end to end.(b) when a boundary is scored. See Law 19 (Boundaries).(c) when penalty runs are awarded. See 6 below.(d) when Lost ball is called. See Law 20 (Lost ball).2. Runs disallowedNotwithstanding 1 above, or any other provisions elsewhere in these Laws, the scoring of runs or awarding of penalties will be subject to any provisions that may be applicable, for the disallowance of runs or for the non-award of penalties.3. Short runs(a) A run is short if a batsman fails to make good his ground in turning for a further run.(b) Although a short run shortens the succeeding one, the latter if completed shall not be regarded as short. A striker setting off for his first run from in front of his popping crease may do so also without penalty.4. Unintentional short runsExcept in the circumstances of 5 below,(a) if either batsman runs a short run, the umpire concerned shall, unless a boundary is scored, call and signal Short run as soon as the ball becomes dead and that run shall not be scored.(b) if, after either or both batsmen run short, a boundary is scored the umpire concerned shall disregard the short running and shall not call or signal Short run.(c) if both batsmen run short in one and the same run, this shall be regarded as only one short run.(d) if more than one run is short then, subject to (b) and (c) above, all runs so called shall not be scored.If there has been more than one short run, the umpire shall inform the scorers as to the number of runs to be recorded.5. Deliberate short runs(a) Notwithstanding 4 above, if either umpire considers that either or both batsmen deliberately run short at his end, the umpire concerned shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of what has occurred. The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) warn both batsmen that the practice is unfair and indicate that this is a first and final warning. This warning shall apply throughout the innings. The umpire shall so inform each incoming batsman.(ii) whether a batsman is dismissed or not, disallow all runs to the batting side from that delivery other than any runs awarded for penalties.(iii) return the batsmen to their original ends.(iv) inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for this action.(v) inform the scorers as to the number of runs to be recorded.(b) If there is any further instance of deliberate short running by any batsman in that innings, the umpire concerned shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of what has occurred and the procedure set out in (a) (ii), (iii) and (iv) above shall be repeated. Additionally the bowler’s end umpire shall(i) award 5 penalty runs to the fielding side (ii) inform the scorers as to the number of runs to be recorded(iii) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the batting side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and the player or players concerned.6. Runs awarded for penaltiesRuns shall be awarded for penalties under 5 above and Laws 2.6 (Player returning without permission), 24 (No ball), 25 (Wide ball), 41.2 (Fielding the ball), 41.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side), and 42 (Fair and unfair play).7. Runs scored for boundariesRuns shall be scored for boundary allowances under Law 19 (Boundaries).8. Runs scored for Lost ballRuns shall be scored when Lost ball is called under Law 20 (Lost ball).9. Runs scored when a batsman is dismissedWhen a batsman is dismissed, any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall stand. No other runs shall be credited to the batting side, except as follows.If a batsman is(a) dismissed Handled the ball, the batting side shall also score the runs completed before the offence.(b) dismissed Obstructing the field, the batting side shall also score the runs completed before the offence.If, however, the obstruction prevented a catch from being made, no runs other than penalties shall be scored.(c) dismissed Run out, the batting side shall also score the runs completed before the wicket was put down.If, however, a striker who has a runner is himself dismissed Run out, no runs other than penalties shall be scored. See Law 2.8 (Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner).10. Runs scored when the ball becomes dead other than at the fall of a wicketWhen the ball becomes dead for any reason other than the fall of a wicket, or is called dead by an umpire, unless there is specific provision otherwise in the Laws,(a) any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall be scored. Note, however, the provisions of Laws 26.3 (Leg byes not to be awarded) and 41.4 (Penalty runs not to be awarded).(b) additionally the batting side shall be credited with(i) all runs completed by the batsmen before the incident or calland (ii) the run in progress if the batsmen had already crossed at the instant of the incident or call. Note specifically, however, the provisions of Laws 34.4(c) (Runs scored from ball lawfully struck more than once) and 42.5(f) (Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsman).11. Batsman returning to original end(a) When a batsman is dismissed, the not out batsman shall return to his original end(i) if the striker is himself Run out in the circumstances of Law 2.8(c) (Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner).(ii) for all other methods of dismissal other than those in 12(a) below.(b) Other than at the fall of a wicket, the batsmen shall return to their original ends in the cases of, and only in the cases of,(i) a boundary.(ii) disallowance of runs for any reason.(iii) a decision by the batsmen at the wicket to do so under Law 42.5(g) (Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsman).12. Batsman returning to wicket he has left(a) When a batsman is dismissed (i) Caught, Handled the ball or Obstructing the field,(ii) Run out other than as in 11(a) above,the not out batsman shall return to the wicket he has left, but only if the batsmen had not already crossed at the instant of the incident causing the dismissal.(b) Except in the cases of 11(b) above, if while a run is in progress the ball becomes dead for any reason other than the dismissal of a batsman, or is called dead by an umpire, the batsmen shall return to the wickets they had left, but only if they had not already crossed in running when the ball became dead.

Law 19 (Boundaries)

1. The boundary of the field of play(a) Before the toss the umpires shall agree the boundary of the field of play with both captains. The boundary shall if possible be marked along its whole length.(b) The boundary shall be agreed so that no part of any sight-screen is within the field of play.(c) An obstacle or person within the field of play shall not be regarded as a boundary unless so decided by the umpires before the toss. See Law 3.4 (To inform captains and scorers).2. Defining the boundary – boundary marking(a) Wherever practicable the boundary shall be marked by means of a white line or a rope along the ground.(b) If the boundary is marked by means of a white line,(i) the inside edge of the line shall be the boundary edge.(ii) a flag, post or board used merely to highlight the position of a line marked on the ground must be placed outside the boundary edge and is not itself to be regarded as defining or marking the boundary. Note, however, the provisions of (c) below.(c) If a solid object is used to mark the boundary, it must have an edge or a line to constitute the boundary edge. (i) For a rope, which includes any similar object of curved cross section, lying on the ground, the boundary edge will be the line formed by the innermost points of the rope along its length.(ii) For a fence, which includes any similar object in contact with the ground but with a flat surface projecting above the ground, the boundary edge will be the base line of the fence.(d) If the boundary edge is not defined as in (b) or (c) above, the umpires and captains must agree before the toss what line will be the boundary edge. Where there is no physical marker for a section of boundary, the boundary edge shall be the imaginary straight line on the ground joining the two nearest marked points of the boundary edge.(e) If a solid object used to mark the boundary is disturbed for any reason during play then, if possible, it shall be restored to its original position as soon as the ball is dead. If it is not possible then,(i) if some part of the fence or other marker has come within the field of play, that part shall be removed from the field of play as soon as the ball becomes dead.(ii) the line where the base of the fence or marker originally stood shall define the boundary edge.3. Scoring a boundary(a) A boundary shall be scored and signalled by the bowler’s end umpire whenever, while the ball is in play, in his opinion,(i) the ball touches the boundary, or is grounded beyond the boundary.(ii) a fielder with some part of his person in contact with the ball, touches the boundary or has some part of his person grounded beyond the boundary.(b) The phrases ‘touches the boundary’ and ‘touching the boundary’ shall mean contact witheither (i) the boundary edge as defined in 2 aboveor (ii) any person or obstacle within the field of play which has been designated a boundary by the umpires before the toss.(c) The phrase ‘grounded beyond the boundary’ shall mean contact witheither (i) any part of a line or solid object marking the boundary except its boundary edgeor (ii) the ground beyond the boundary edgeor (iii) any object in contact with the ground beyond the boundary edge.4. Ball beyond the boundaryVideo: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 19
A ball may be caught, subject to the provisions of Law 32, or fielded after it has crossed the boundary, provided that(i) the first contact with the ball is by a fielder either with some part of his person grounded within the boundary, or whose final contact with the ground before touching the ball was within the boundary.(ii) neither the ball, nor any fielder in contact with the ball, touches or is grounded beyond, the boundary at any time during the act of making the catch or of fielding the ball.The act of making the catch, or of fielding the ball, shall start from the time when the ball first comes into contact with some part of a fielder’s person and shall end when a fielder obtains complete control both over the ball and over his own movement and has no part of his person touching or grounded beyond the boundary.5. Runs allowed for boundaries(a) Before the toss, the umpires shall agree with both captains the runs to be allowed for boundaries. In deciding the allowances, the umpires and captains shall be guided by the prevailing custom of the ground. (b) Unless agreed differently under (a) above, the allowances for boundaries shall be 6 runs if the ball having been struck by the bat pitches beyond the boundary, but otherwise 4 runs. These allowances shall still apply even though the ball has previously touched a fielder. See also (c) below.(c) The ball shall be regarded as pitching beyond the boundary and 6 runs shall be scored if a fielder(i) has any part of his person touching the boundary or grounded beyond the boundary when he catches the ball.(ii) catches the ball and subsequently touches the boundary or grounds some part of his person beyond the boundary while carrying the ball but before completing the catch. See Law 32 (Caught).6. Runs scoredWhen a boundary is scored,(a) any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall be scored.(b) the batting side, except in the circumstances of 7 below, shall additionally be awarded whichever is the greater of(i) the allowance for the boundary(ii) the runs completed by the batsmen together with the run in progress if they had already crossed at the instant the boundary is scored.(c) When the runs in (ii) above exceed the boundary allowance they shall replace the boundary for the purposes of Law 18.12 (Batsman returning to wicket he has left).7. Overthrow or wilful act of fielderIf the boundary results from an overthrow or from the wilful act of a fielder the runs scored shall be(i) any runs for penalties awarded to either sideand (ii) the allowance for the boundaryand (iii) the runs completed by the batsmen, together with the run in progress if they had already crossed at the instant of the throw or act.Law 18.12(b) (Batsman returning to wicket he has left) shall apply as from the instant of the throw or act.
Law 20 (Lost ball)

1. Fielder to call Lost ballIf a ball in play cannot be found or recovered, any fielder may call Lost ball. The ball shall then become dead. See Law 23.1 (Ball is dead). Law 18.12(b) (Batsman returning to wicket he has left) shall apply as from the instant of the call.2. Ball to be replacedThe umpires shall replace the ball with one which has had wear comparable with that which the previous ball had received before it was lost or became irrecoverable. See Law 5.5 (Ball lost or becoming unfit for play).3. Runs scored(a) Any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall be scored.(b) The batting side shall additionally be awardedeither (i) the runs completed by the batsmen, together with the run in progress if they had already crossed at the instant of the call,or (ii) 6 runs, whichever is the greater. These shall be credited to the striker if the ball has been struck by the bat, but otherwise to the total of Byes, Leg byes, No balls or Wides as the case may be.

Law 21 (The result)

1. A Win – two innings match The side which has scored a total of runs in excess of that scored in the two completed innings of the opposing side shall win the match. See Law 12.3 (Completed innings). Note also 6 below.2. A Win – one innings matchThe side which has scored in its one innings a total of runs in excess of that scored by the opposing side in its one completed innings shall win the match. See Law 12.3 (Completed innings). Note also 6 below.3. Umpires awarding a matchNotwithstanding any agreement under Law 12.1(b) (Number of innings), (a) a match shall be lost by a side whicheither (i) concedes defeator (ii) in the opinion of the umpires refuses to playand the umpires shall award the match to the other side.(b) if an umpire considers that an action by any player or players might constitute a refusal by either side to play then the umpires together shall ascertain the cause of the action. If they then decide together that this action does constitute a refusal to play by one side, they shall so inform the captain of that side. If the captain persists in the action the umpires shall award the match in accordance with (a) above.(c) if action as in (b) above takes place after play has started and does not constitute a refusal to play,(i) playing time lost shall be counted from the start of the action until play recommences, subject to Law 15.5 (Changing agreed times for intervals).(ii) the time for close of play on that day shall be extended by this length of time, subject to Law 3.9 (Suspension of play in dangerous or unreasonable conditions).(iii) if applicable, no overs shall be deducted during the last hour of the match solely on account of this time.4. Matches in which there is an agreement under Law 12.1(b)For any match in which there is an agreement under Law 12.1(b) (Number of innings), if the result is not determined in any of the ways stated in 1, 2 or 3 above, then the result shall be as laid down in that agreement.5. All other matches – A Tie or Draw(a) A TieThe result of a match shall be a Tie when the scores are equal at the conclusion of play, but only if the side batting last has completed its innings.(b) A DrawA match which is concluded as defined Law 16.9 (Conclusion of match), without being determined in any of the ways stated in (a) above or in 1, 2, or 3, above, shall count as a Draw.6. Winning hit or extras(a) As soon as a result is reached as defined in 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5(a) above, the match is at an end. Nothing that happens thereafter, except as in Law 42.17(b) (Penalty runs), shall be regarded as part of it. Note also 9 below.(b) The side batting last will have scored enough runs to win only if its total of runs is sufficient without including any runs completed by the batsmen before the completion of a catch, or the obstruction of a catch, from which the striker could be dismissed.(c) If a boundary is scored before the batsmen have completed sufficient runs to win the match, the whole of the boundary allowance shall be credited to the side’s total and, in the case of a hit by the bat, to the striker’s score.7. Statement of resultIf the side batting last wins the match without losing all its wickets, the result shall be stated as a win by the number of wickets still then to fall.If, without having scored a total of runs in excess of the total scored by the opposing side, the side batting last has lost all its wickets, but as the result of an award of 5 penalty runs its total of runs is then sufficient to win, the result shall be stated as a win to that side by Penalty runs.If the side fielding last wins the match, the result shall be stated as a win by runs.If the match is decided by one side conceding defeat or refusing to play, the result shall be stated as Match Conceded or Match Awarded, as the case may be.8. Correctness of resultAny decision as to the correctness of the scores shall be the responsibility of the umpires. See Law 3.15 (Correctness of scores).9. Mistakes in scoringIf, after the players and umpires have left the field in the belief that the match has been concluded, the umpires discover that a mistake in scoring has occurred which affects the result then, subject to 10 below, they shall adopt the following procedure.(a) If, when the players leave the field, the side batting last has not completed its innings andeither (i) the number of overs to be bowled in the last hour, or in that innings, has not been completedor (ii) the agreed time for close of play, or for the end of the innings, has not been reachedthen, unless one side concedes defeat, the umpires shall order play to resume.Unless a result is reached sooner, play will then continue, if conditions permit, until the prescribed number of overs has been completed and either time for close of play has been reached or the allotted time for the innings has expired, as appropriate. The number of overs and time remaining shall be taken as they were at the call of Time for the supposed conclusion of the match. No account shall be taken of the time between that moment and the resumption of play.(b) If, at this call of Time, the overs have been completed and no playing time remains, or if the side batting last has completed its innings, the umpires shall immediately inform both captains of the necessary corrections to the scores and to the result.10. Result not to be changedOnce the umpires have agreed with the scorers the correctness of the scores at the conclusion of the match – see Laws 3.15 (Correctness of scores) and 4.2 (Correctness of scores) – the result cannot thereafter be changed.

Law 22 (The over)
1. Number of ballsThe ball shall be bowled from each end alternately in overs of 6 balls.2. Start of an overAn over has started when the bowler starts his run up or, if he has no run up, his action for the first delivery of that over.3. Validity of balls(a) A ball shall not count as one of the 6 balls of the over unless it is delivered, even though, as in Law 42.15 (Bowler attempting to run out non-striker before delivery) a batsman may be dismissed or some other incident occurs without the ball having been delivered.(b) A ball delivered by the bowler shall not count as one of the 6 balls of the over(i) if it is called dead, or is to be considered dead, before the striker has had an opportunity to play it. See Law 23.6 (Dead Ball; ball counting as one of over).(ii) if it is called dead in the circumstances of Law 23.4(b)(vi) (Umpire calling and signalling Dead ball). Note also the special provisions of Law 23.4(b)(v).(iii) if it is a No ball. See Law 24 (No ball).(iv) if it is a Wide. See Law 25 (Wide ball).(v) when 5 penalty runs are awarded to the batting side under any of Laws 2.6 (Player returning without permission), 41.2 (Fielding the ball), 42.4 (Deliberate attempt to distract striker), or 42.5 (Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsman).(c) Any deliveries other than those listed in (a) and (b) above shall be known as valid balls. Only valid balls shall count towards the 6 balls of the over.4. Call of OverWhen 6 valid balls have been bowled and when the ball becomes dead, the umpire shall call Over before leaving the wicket. See also Law 23.3 (Call of Over or Time).5. Umpire miscounting(a) If the umpire miscounts the number of valid balls, the over as counted by the umpire shall stand. (b) If, having miscounted, the umpire allows an over to continue after 6 valid balls have been bowled, he may subsequently call Over as the ball becomes dead after any delivery, even if that delivery is not a valid ball.6. Bowler changing endsA bowler shall be allowed to change ends as often as desired, provided he does not bowl two overs consecutively, nor bowl parts of each of two consecutive overs, in the same innings.7. Finishing an over(a) Other than at the end of an innings, a bowler shall finish an over in progress unless he is incapacitated or is suspended under any of the Laws.(b) If for any reason, other than the end of an innings, an over is left uncompleted at the start of an interval or interruption, it shall be completed on resumption of play.8. Bowler incapacitated or suspended during an overIf for any reason a bowler is incapacitated while running up to deliver the first ball of an over, or is incapacitated or suspended during an over, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball. Another bowler shall complete the over from the same end, provided that he does not bowl two overs consecutively, nor bowl parts of each of two consecutive overs, in that innings.

Law 23 (Dead ball)
1. Ball is dead(a) The ball becomes dead when(i) it is finally settled in the hands of the wicket-keeper or of the bowler.(ii) a boundary is scored. See Law 19.3 (Scoring a boundary).(iii) a batsman is dismissed. The ball will be deemed to be dead from the instant of the incident causing the dismissal.(iv) whether played or not it becomes trapped between the bat and person of a batsman or between items of his clothing or equipment.(v) whether played or not it lodges in the clothing or equipment of a batsman or the clothing of an umpire.(vi) it lodges in a protective helmet worn by a fielder.(vii) there is an award of penalty runs under either of Laws 2.6 (Player returning without permission) or 41.2 (Fielding the ball). The ball shall not count as one of the over.(viii) there is contravention of Law 41.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side).(ix) Lost ball is called. See Law 20 (Lost ball).(b) The ball shall be considered to be dead when it is clear to the bowler’s end umpire that the fielding side and both batsmen at the wicket have ceased to regard it as in play.2. Ball finally settledWhether the ball is finally settled or not is a matter for the umpire alone to decide.3. Call of Over or TimeNeither the call of Over (see Law 22.4), nor the call of Time (see Law 16.2) is to be made until the ball is dead, either under 1 above or under 4 below.4. Umpire calling and signalling Dead ball(a) When the ball has become dead under 1 above, the bowler’s end umpire may call and signal Dead ball if it is necessary to inform the players.(b) Either umpire shall call and signal Dead ball when(i) he intervenes in a case of unfair play.(ii) a serious injury to a player or umpire occurs.(iii) he leaves his normal position for consultation.(iv) one or both bails fall from the striker’s wicket before the striker has had the opportunity of playing the ball.(v) the striker is not ready for the delivery of the ball and, if the ball is delivered, makes no attempt to play it. Provided the umpire is satisfied that the striker had adequate reason for not being ready, the ball shall not count as one of the over.(vi) the striker is distracted by any noise or movement or in any other way while he is preparing to receive, or receiving a delivery. This shall apply whether the source of the distraction is within the game or outside it. Note also (vii) below.The ball shall not count as one of the over.(vii) there is an instance of a deliberate attempt to distract under either of Laws 42.4 (Deliberate attempt to distract striker) or 42.5 (Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsman). The ball shall not count as one of the over.(viii) the bowler drops the ball accidentally before delivery.(ix) the ball does not leave the bowler’s hand for any reason other than an attempt to run out the non-striker before entering his delivery stride. See Law 42.15 (Bowler attempting to run out non-striker before delivery).(x) he is required to do so under any of the Laws not included above.5. Ball ceases to be deadThe ball ceases to be dead – that is, it comes into play – when the bowler starts his run up or, if he has no run up, his bowling action.6. Dead ball; ball counting as one of over(a) When a ball which has been delivered is called dead or is to be considered dead then, other than as in (b) below, (i) it will not count in the over if the striker has not had an opportunity to play it.(ii) it will be a valid ball if the striker has had an opportunity to play it, unless No ball or Wide has been called, except in the circumstances of 4(b)(vi) above and Laws 2.6 (Fielder returning without permission), 41.2 (Fielding the ball), 42.4 (Deliberate attempt to distract striker) and 42.5 (Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsman).(b) In 4(b)(v) above, the ball will not count in the over only if both conditions of not attempting to play the ball and having an adequate reason for not being ready are met. Otherwise the delivery will be a valid ball.

Law 24 (No ball)
1. Mode of delivery(a) The umpire shall ascertain whether the bowler intends to bowl right handed or left handed, over or round the wicket, and shall so inform the striker.It is unfair if the bowler fails to notify the umpire of a change in his mode of delivery. In this case the umpire shall call and signal No ball.(b) Underarm bowling shall not be permitted except by special agreement before the match.Video: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 24 2. Fair delivery – the armFor a delivery to be fair in respect of the arm the ball must not be thrown. See 3 belowAlthough it is the primary responsibility of the striker’s end umpire to assess the fairness of a delivery in this respect, there is nothing in this Law to debar the bowler’s end umpire from calling and signalling No ball if he considers that the ball has been thrown.(a) If, in the opinion of either umpire, the ball has been thrown, he shall call and signal No ball and, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of the reason for the call.The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) caution the bowler. This caution shall apply throughout the innings.(ii) inform the captain of the fielding side of the reason for this action.(iii) inform the batsmen at the wicket of what has occurred.(b) If, after such caution, either umpire considers that, in that innings, a further delivery by the same bowler is thrown, the procedure set out in (a) above shall be repeated, indicating to the bowler that this is a final warning.This warning shall also apply throughout the innings.(c) If either umpire considers that, in that innings, a further delivery by the same bowler is thrown, he shall call and signal No ball and when the ball is dead inform the other umpire of the reason for the call.The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler forthwith. The over shall, if applicable, be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled the previous over or part thereof nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.The bowler thus suspended shall not bowl again in that innings.(ii) inform the batsmen at the wicket and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the occurrence.(d) The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and the bowler concerned.3. Definition of fair delivery – the armA ball is fairly delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler’s arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened partially or completely from that point until the ball has left the hand. This definition shall not debar a bowler from flexing or rotating the wrist in the delivery swing.4. Bowler throwing towards striker’s end before deliveryIf the bowler throws the ball towards the striker’s end before entering his delivery stride, either umpire shall call and signal No ball. See Law 42.16 (Batsmen stealing a run). However, the procedure stated in 2 above of caution, informing, final warning, action against the bowler and reporting shall not apply.5. Fair delivery – the feetFor a delivery to be fair in respect of the feet, in the delivery stride(a) the bowler’s back foot must land within and not touching the return crease appertaining to his stated mode of delivery.(b) the bowler’s front foot must land with some part of the foot, whether grounded or raised(i) on the same side of the imaginary line joining the two middle stumps as the return crease described in (a) aboveand (ii) behind the popping crease.If the bowler’s end umpire is not satisfied that all of these three conditions have been met, he shall call and signal No ball.6. Ball bouncing more than twice or rolling along the groundThe umpire shall call and signal No ball if a ball which he considers to have been delivered, without having previously touched bat or person of the striker,either (i) bounces more than twiceor (ii) rolls along the groundbefore it reaches the popping crease.7. Ball coming to rest in front of striker’s wicketIf a ball delivered by the bowler comes to rest in front of the line of the striker’s wicket, without having previously touched the bat or person of the striker, the umpire shall call and signal No ball and immediately call and signal Dead ball.8. Call of No ball for infringement of other LawsIn addition to the instances above, No ball is to be called and signalled as required by the following Laws.Law 40.3 – Position of wicket-keeperLaw 41.5 – Limitation of on side fieldersLaw 41.6 – Fielders not to encroach on pitchLaw 42.6 – Dangerous and unfair bowlingLaw 42.7 – Dangerous and unfair bowling – action by the umpireLaw 42.8 – Deliberate bowling of high full pitched balls9. Revoking a call of No ballAn umpire shall revoke his call of No ball if the ball does not leave the bowler’s hand for any reason.10. No ball to over-ride WideA call of No ball shall over-ride the call of Wide ball at any time. See Laws 25.1(Judging a Wide) and 25.3 (Call and signal of Wide ball).11. Ball not deadThe ball does not become dead on the call of No ball.12. Penalty for a No ballA penalty of one run shall be awarded instantly on the call of No ball. Unless the call is revoked, the penalty shall stand even if a batsman is dismissed. It shall be in addition to any other runs scored, any boundary allowance and any other runs awarded for penalties.13. Runs resulting from a No ball – how scoredThe one run penalty shall be scored as a No ball extra. If other penalty runs have been awarded to either side these shall be scored as stated in Law 42.17 (Penalty runs). Any runs completed by the batsmen or any boundary allowance shall be credited to the striker if the ball has been struck by the bat; otherwise they shall also be scored as No ball extras.Apart from any award of 5 penalty runs, all runs resulting from a No ball, whether as No ball extras or credited to the striker, shall be debited against the bowler.14. No ball not to countA No ball shall not count as one of the over. See Law 22.3 (Validity of balls).15. Out from a No ballWhen No ball has been called, neither batsman shall be out under any of the Laws except 33 (Handled the ball), 34 (Hit the ball twice), 37 (Obstructing the field) or 38 (Run out).

Law 25 (Wide ball)
1. Judging a Wide(a) If the bowler bowls a ball, not being a No ball, the umpire shall adjudge it a Wide if, according to the definition in (b) below, in his opinion the ball passes wide of the striker where he is and which also would have passed wide of him standing in a normal guard position.(b) The ball will be considered as passing wide of the striker unless it is sufficiently within his reach for him to be able to hit it with his bat by means of a normal cricket stroke.2. Delivery not a WideThe umpire shall not adjudge a delivery as being a Wide(a) if the striker, by moving,either (i) causes the ball to pass wide of him, as defined in 1(b) aboveor (ii) brings the ball sufficiently within his reach to be able to hit it by means of a normal cricket stroke.(b) if the ball touches the striker’s bat or person.3. Call and signal of Wide ball(a) If the umpire adjudges a delivery to be a Wide he shall call and signal Wide ball as soon as the ball passes the striker’s wicket. It shall, however, be considered to have been a Wide from the instant of delivery, even though it cannot be called Wide until it passes the striker’s wicket.(b) The umpire shall revoke the call of Wide ball if there is then any contact between the ball and the striker’s bat or person.(c) The umpire shall revoke the call of Wide ball if a delivery is called a No ball. See Law 24.10 (No ball to over-ride Wide).4. Ball not deadThe ball does not become dead on the call of Wide ball.5. Penalty for a WideA penalty of one run shall be awarded instantly on the call of Wide ball. Unless the call is revoked (see 3(b) and (c) above), this penalty shall stand even if a batsman is dismissed, and shall be in addition to any other runs scored, any boundary allowance and any other runs awarded for penalties.6. Runs resulting from a Wide – how scoredAll runs completed by the batsmen or a boundary allowance, together with the penalty for the Wide, shall be scored as Wide balls. Apart from any award of 5 penalty runs, all runs resulting from a Wide shall be debited against the bowler.7. Wide not to countA Wide shall not count as one of the over. See Law 22.3 (Validity of balls).8. Out from a WideWhen Wide ball has been called, neither batsman shall be out under any of the Laws except 33 (Handled the ball), 35 (Hit wicket), 37 (Obstructing the field), 38 (Run out) or 39 (Stumped).

Law 26 (Bye and Leg bye)
1. ByesIf the ball, delivered by the bowler, not being a No ball or a Wide, passes the striker without touching his bat or person, any runs completed by the batsmen from that delivery, or a boundary allowance, shall be credited as Byes to the batting side.2. Leg byes(a) If a ball delivered by the bowler first strikes the person of the striker, runs shall be scored only if the umpire is satisfied that the striker haseither (i) attempted to play the ball with his bator (ii) tried to avoid being hit by the ball.(b) If the umpire is satisfied that either of these conditions has been met runs shall be scored as follows.(i) If there iseither no subsequent contact with the striker’s bat or person,or only inadvertent contact with the striker’s bat or personruns completed by the batsmen or a boundary allowance shall be credited to the striker in the case of subsequent contact with his bat but otherwise to the batting side as in (c) below.(ii) If the striker wilfully makes a lawful second strike, Laws 34.3 (Ball lawfully struck more than once) and 34.4 (Runs scored from ball lawfully struck more than once) shall apply.(c) The runs in (b)(i) above, unless credited to the striker, shall,(i) if the delivery is not a No ball, be scored as Leg byes.(ii) if No ball has been called, be scored together with the penalty for the No ball, as No ball extras.3. Leg byes not to be awardedIf in the circumstance of 2(a) above the umpire considers that neither of the conditions (i) and (ii) therein has been met, then Leg byes shall not be awarded. The batting side shall not be credited with any runs from that delivery apart from the one run penalty for a No ball if applicable. Moreover, no other penalties arising from that delivery shall be awarded to the batting side. The following procedure shall be adopted. (a) If no run is attempted but the ball reaches the boundary, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball, and disallow the boundary.(b) If runs are attempted and if (i) neither batsman is dismissed and the ball does not become dead for any other reason, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball as soon as one run is completed or the ball reaches the boundary. The run or boundary shall be disallowed. The batsmen shall return to their original ends.(ii) before one run is completed or the ball reaches the boundary, a batsman is dismissed, or the ball becomes dead for any other reason, all the provisions of the Laws will apply, except that no runs and no penalties shall be credited to the batting side, other than the penalty for a No ball if applicable.

Law 27 (Appeals)
1. Umpire not to give batsman out without an appealNeither umpire shall give a batsman out, even though he may be out under the Laws, unless appealed to by a fielder. This shall not debar a batsman who is out under any of the Laws from leaving his wicket without an appeal having been made. Note, however, the provisions of 7 below.2. Batsman dismissedA batsman is dismissed ifeither (a) he is given out by an umpire, on appealor (b) he is out under any of the Laws and leaves his wicket as in 1 above.3. Timing of appealsFor an appeal to be valid, it must be made before the bowler begins his run up or, if he has no run up, his bowling action to deliver the next ball, and before Time has been called.The call of Over does not invalidate an appeal made prior to the start of the following over, provided Time has not been called. See Laws 16.2 (Call of Time) and 22.2 (Start of an over).4. Appeal “How’s That?”An appeal “How’s That?” covers all ways of being out.5. Answering appealsThe striker’s end umpire shall answer all appeals arising out of any of Laws 35 (Hit wicket), 39 (Stumped) or 38 (Run out) when this occurs at the wicket-keeper’s end. The bowler’s end umpire shall answer all other appeals.When an appeal is made, each umpire shall answer on any matter that falls within his jurisdiction.When a batsman has been given Not out, either umpire may answer an appeal, made in accordance with 3 above, if it is on a further matter and is within his jurisdiction.6. Consultation by umpiresEach umpire shall answer appeals on matters within his own jurisdiction. If an umpire is doubtful about any point that the other umpire may have been in a better position to see, he shall consult the latter on this point of fact and shall then give the decision. If, after consultation, there is still doubt remaining, the decision shall be Not out.7. Batsman leaving his wicket under a misapprehensionAn umpire shall intervene if satisfied that a batsman, not having been given out, has left his wicket under a misapprehension that he is out. The umpire intervening shall call and signal Dead ball to prevent any further action by the fielding side and shall recall the batsman.8. Withdrawal of an appealThe captain of the fielding side may withdraw an appeal only if he obtains the consent of the umpire within whose jurisdiction the appeal falls. He must do so before the outgoing batsman has left the field of play. If such consent is given, the umpire concerned shall, if applicable, revoke his decision and recall the batsman.9. Umpire’s decisionAn umpire may alter his decision provided that such alteration is made promptly. This apart, an umpire’s decision, once made, is final.

Law 28 (The wicket is down)
1. Wicket put down(a) The wicket is put down if a bail is completely removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the ground, (i) by the ball,or (ii) by the striker’s bat if he is holding it or by any part of his bat that he is holding,or (iii) notwithstanding the provisions of Law 6.8(a), by the striker’s bat in falling if he has let go of it, or by any part of his bat becoming detached,Video: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 28 or (iv) by the striker’s person or by any part of his clothing or equipment becoming detached from his person,or (v) by a fielder with his hand or arm, providing that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used.The wicket is also put down if a fielder strikes or pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner.(b) The disturbance of a bail, whether temporary or not, shall not constitute its complete removal from the top of the stumps, but if a bail in falling lodges between two of the stumps this shall be regarded as complete removal.2. One bail offIf one bail is off, it shall be sufficient for the purpose of putting the wicket down to remove the remaining bail or to strike or pull any of the three stumps out of the ground, in any of the ways stated in 1 above.3. Remaking wicketIf a wicket is broken or put down while the ball is in play, it shall not be remade by an umpire until the ball is dead. See Law 23 (Dead ball). Any fielder may, however, while the ball is in play,(i) replace a bail or bails on top of the stumps.(ii) put back one or more stumps into the ground where the wicket originally stood.4. Dispensing with bailsIf the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails in accordance with Law 8.5 (Dispensing with bails), it is for the umpire concerned to decide whether or not the wicket has been put down.(a) After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker’s bat, person or items of his clothing or equipment as described in 1(a) (ii), (iii) or (iv) above, or by a fielder in the manner described in 1(a)(v) above.(b) If the wicket has already been broken or put down, (a) above shall apply to any stump or stumps still in the ground. Any fielder may replace a stump or stumps, in accordance with 3 above, in order to have an opportunity of putting the wicket down.

Law 29 (Batsman out of his ground)
1. When out of his ground(a) A batsman shall be considered to be out of his ground unless his bat or some part of his person is grounded behind the popping crease at that end.(b) Notwithstanding (a) above, if a running batsman, having grounded some part of his foot behind the popping crease, continues running further towards the wicket at that end and beyond, then any subsequent total loss of contact with the ground of both his person and his bat during his continuing forward momentum shall not be interpreted as being out of his ground.Video: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 29 2. Which is a batsman’s ground(a) If only one batsman is within a ground(i) it is his ground(ii) it remains his ground even if he is later joined there by the other batsman.(b) If both batsmen are in the same ground and one of them subsequently leaves it, (a)(i) above applies.(c) If there is no batsman in either ground, then each ground belongs to whichever batsman is nearer to it, or, if the batsmen are level, to whichever batsman was nearer to it immediately prior to their drawing level.(d) If a ground belongs to one batsman then, unless there is a striker who has a runner, the other ground belongs to the other batsman, irrespective of his position.(e) When a batsman who has a runner is striker, his ground is always at the wicket-keeper’s end. However, (a), (b), (c) and (d) above will still apply, but only to the runner and the non-striker, so that that ground will also belong to either the non-striker or the runner, as the case may be.3. Position of non-strikerThe non-striker, when standing at the bowler’s end, should be positioned on the opposite side of the wicket to that from which the ball is being delivered, unless a request to do otherwise is granted by the umpire.

Law 30 (Bowled)
1. Out Bowled(a) The striker is out Bowled if his wicket is put down by a ball delivered by the bowler, not being a No ball, even if it first touches his bat or person.(b) Notwithstanding (a) above he shall not be out Bowled if before striking the wicket the ball has been in contact with any other player or an umpire. He will, however, be subject to Laws 33 (Handled the ball), 37 (Obstructing the field), 38 (Run out) and 39 (Stumped).2. Bowled to take precedenceThe striker is out Bowled if his wicket is put down as in 1 above, even though a decision against him for any other method of dismissal would be justified.

Law 31 (Timed out)
1. Out Timed out(a) After the fall of a wicket or the retirement of a batsman, the incoming batsman must, unless Time has been called, be in position to take guard or for his partner to be ready to receive the next ball within 3 minutes of the dismissal or retirement. If this requirement is not met, the incoming batsman will be out, Timed out.(b) In the event of protracted delay in which no batsman comes to the wicket, the umpires shall adopt the procedure of Law 21.3 (Umpires awarding a match). For the purposes of that Law the start of the action shall be taken as the expiry of the 3 minutes referred to above.2. Bowler does not get creditThe bowler does not get credit for the wicket.

Law 32 (Caught)
1. Out CaughtThe striker is out Caught if a ball delivered by the bowler, not being a No ball, touches his bat without having previously been in contact with any fielder, and is subsequently held by a fielder as a fair catch before it touches the ground.2. Caught to take precedenceIf the criteria of 1 above are met and the striker is not out Bowled, then he is out Caught, even though a decision against either batsman for another method of dismissal would be justified.3. A fair catchA catch shall be considered to have been fairly made if(a) throughout the act of making the catch(i) any fielder in contact with the ball is within the field of play. See 4 below.(ii) the ball is at no time in contact with any object grounded beyond the boundary.The act of making the catch shall start from the time when the ball in flight comes into contact with some part of a fielder’s person other than a protective helmet, and shall end when a fielder obtains complete control both over the ball and over his own movement.(b) the ball is hugged to the body of the catcher or accidentally lodges in his clothing or, in the case of the wicket-keeper only, in his pads. However, it is not a fair catch if the ball lodges in a protective helmet worn by a fielder. See Law 23 (Dead ball).(c) the ball does not touch the ground even though the hand holding it does so in effecting the catch.(d) a fielder catches the ball after it has been lawfully struck more than once by the striker, but only if it has not been grounded since first being struck.(e) a fielder catches the ball after it has touched an umpire, another fielder or the other batsman. However, it is not a fair catch if the ball has previously touched a protective helmet worn by a fielder. The ball will then remain in play.(f) a fielder catches the ball in the air after it has crossed the boundary provided that(i) he has no part of his person touching or grounded beyond the boundary at any time while he is contact with the ball.(ii) the ball has not been grounded beyond the boundary. See Law 19.3 (Scoring a boundary).Note also Law 19.4 (Ball beyond the boundary)(g) the ball is caught off an obstruction within the boundary provided the obstruction had not been designated a boundary by the umpires before the toss.4. Fielder within the field of play(a) A fielder is not within the field of play if he has any part of his person touching, or grounded beyond, the boundary. See Law 19.3 (Scoring a boundary).(b) 6 runs shall be scored if a fielder (i) has any part of his person touching, or grounded beyond, the boundary when he catches the ball.(ii) catches the ball and subsequently touches the boundary or grounds some part of his person beyond the boundary while carrying the ball but before completing the catch.See Laws 19.3 (Scoring a boundary) and 19.5 (Runs allowed for boundaries).5. No runs to be scoredIf the striker is dismissed Caught, runs from that delivery completed by the batsmen before the completion of the catch shall not be scored but any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall stand. Law 18.12 (Batsman returning to wicket he has left) shall apply from the instant of the completion of the catch.

Law 33 (Handled the ball)
1. Out Handled the ball(a) Either batsman is out Handled the ball if he wilfully touches the ball while in play with a hand or hands not holding the bat unless he does so with the consent of a fielder.(b) Either batsman is out under this Law if, while the ball is in play, and without the consent of a fielder, he uses his hand or hands not holding the bat to return the ball to any fielder.2. Not out Handled the ballNotwithstanding 1(a) above, a batsman will not be out under this Law if he handles the ball to avoid injury.3. Runs scoredIf either batsman is dismissed Handled the ball, runs completed by the batsmen before the offence shall be scored, together with any runs for penalties awarded to either side. See Laws 18.6 (Runs awarded for penalties) and 18.9 (Runs scored when a batsman is dismissed).4 Bowler does not get creditThe bowler does not get credit for the wicket.

Law 34 (Hit the ball twice)
1. Out Hit the ball twice(a) The striker is out Hit the ball twice if, while the ball is in play, it strikes any part of his person or is struck by his bat and, before the ball has been touched by a fielder, he wilfully strikes it again with his bat or person, other than a hand not holding the bat, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. See 3 below and Laws 33 (Handled the ball) and 37 (Obstructing the field).(b) For the purpose of this Law ‘struck’ or ‘strike’ shall include contact with the person of the striker.2. Not out Hit the ball twiceNotwithstanding 1(a) above, the striker will not be out under this Law if(i) he strikes the ball a second or subsequent time in order to return the ball to any fielder. Note, however, the provisions of Law 37.4 (Returning the ball to a fielder).(ii) he wilfully strikes the ball after it has touched a fielder. Note, however the provisions of Law 37.1 (Out Obstructing the field).3. Ball lawfully struck more than onceSolely in order to guard his wicket and before the ball has been touched by a fielder, the striker may lawfully strike the ball a second or subsequent time with his bat, or with any part of his person other than a hand not holding the bat.Notwithstanding this provision, he may not prevent the ball from being caught by striking the ball more than once in defence of his wicket. See Law 37.3 (Obstructing a ball from being caught).4. Runs scored from ball lawfully struck more than onceWhen the ball is lawfully struck more than once, as permitted in 3 above, only the first strike is to be considered in determining whether runs are to be permitted and if so how they are to be recorded.(a) If on the first strike, the umpire is satisfied thateither (i) the ball first struck the bator (ii) the striker attempted to play the ball with his bator (iii) the striker attempted to avoid being hit by the ball,then the batting side shall be credited with any runs for penalties that may be applicable.(b) Additionally, if the conditions in (a) above are met then, if they result from overthrows and only if they result from overthrows, runs completed by the batsmen or a boundary will be scored. They shall be credited to the striker if the first strike was with the bat. If the first strike was on the person of the striker they shall be recorded as Leg byes or No ball extras as appropriate. See Law 26.2 (Leg byes).(c) If the conditions in (a) above are met and there is no overthrow until after the batsmen have started to run but before one run is completed,(i) only subsequent completed runs or a boundary shall be scored. For the purposes of this clause and (iii) below, the first run shall count as a completed run if and only if the batsmen had not already crossed at the instant of the throw.(ii) if in these circumstances the ball goes to the boundary from the throw then, notwithstanding the provisions of Law 19.7 (Overthrow or wilful act of fielder), only the boundary allowance shall be scored.(iii) if the ball goes to the boundary as the result of a further overthrow, then runs completed by the batsman after the first throw but before this final throw shall be added to the boundary allowance. The run in progress at the first throw will count as a completed run only if the batsmen had not already crossed at that instant. The run in progress at the final throw shall count as a completed run only if the batsmen had already crossed at that instant. Law 18.12 (Batsman returning to wicket he has left) shall apply as from the instant of the final throw.(d) If, in the opinion of the umpire, none of the conditions in (a) above are met then, whether there is an overthrow or not, the batting side shall not be credited with any runs from that delivery apart from the penalty for a No ball if applicable. Moreover, no other runs for penalties shall be awarded to the batting side.5. Ball lawfully struck more than once – action by the umpireIf no runs are to be permitted, either in the circumstances of 4(d) above, or because there has been no overthrow, and(a) if no run is attempted but the ball reaches the boundary, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball and disallow the boundary.(b) if the batsmen run and(i) neither batsman is dismissed and the ball does not become dead for any other reason, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball as soon as one run is completed or the ball reaches the boundary. The run or boundary shall be disallowed. The batsmen shall return to their original ends. or (ii) a batsman is dismissed, or if for any other reason the ball becomes dead before one run is completed or the ball reaches the boundary, all the provisions of the Laws will apply except that the award of penalties to the batting side shall be as laid down in 4(a) or 4(d) above, as appropriate.6. Bowler does not get creditThe bowler does not get credit for the wicket.

Law 35 (Hit wicket)
1. Out Hit wicket(a) The striker is out Hit wicket if, after the bowler has entered his delivery stride and while the ball is in play, his wicket is put down either by the striker’s bat or by his person as described in Law 28.1(a)(ii) and (iii) (Wicket put down).` either (i) in the course of any action taken by him in preparing to receive or in receiving a delivery,Video: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 35 or (ii) in setting off for his first run immediately after playing or playing at the ball,or (iii) if he makes no attempt to play the ball, in setting off for his first run, providing that in the opinion of the umpire this is immediately after he has had the opportunity of playing the ball,or (iv) in lawfully making a second or further stroke for the purpose of guarding his wicket within the provisions of Law 34.3 (Ball lawfully struck more than once).(b) If the striker puts his wicket down in any of the ways described in Law 28.1(a)(ii) and (iii) (Wicket put down) before the bowler has entered his delivery stride, either umpire shall call and signal Dead ball.2. Not out Hit wicketNotwithstanding 1 above, the striker is not out under this Law should his wicket be put down in any of the ways referred to in 1 above if(a) it occurs after he has completed any action in receiving the delivery, other than in 1(a)(ii), (iii) and (iv) above.(b) it occurs when he is in the act of running, other than setting off immediately for his first run.(c) it occurs when he is trying to avoid being run out or stumped.(d) it occurs when he is trying to avoid a throw in at any time.(e) the bowler after entering his delivery stride does not deliver the ball. In this case either umpire shall immediately call and signal Dead ball. See Law 23.3 (Umpire calling and signalling Dead ball).(f) the delivery is a No ball.

Law 36 (Leg before wicket)
1. Out LBWThe striker is out LBW in the circumstances set out below.(a) The bowler delivers a ball, not being a No balland (b) the ball, if it is not intercepted full pitch, pitches in line between wicket and wicket or on the off side of the striker’s wicketand (c) the ball not having previously touched his bat, the striker intercepts the ball, either full pitch or after pitching, with any part of his personand (d) the point of impact, even if above the level of the bails,either (i) is between wicket and wicketor (ii) if the striker has made no genuine attempt to play the ball with his bat, is either between wicket and wicket or outside the line of the off stump.and (e) but for the interception, the ball would have hit the wicket.2. Interception of the ball(a) In assessing points (c), (d) and (e) in 1 above, only the first interception is to be considered.(b) In assessing point (e) in 1 above, it is to be assumed that the path of the ball before interception would have continued after interception, irrespective of whether the ball might have pitched subsequently or not.3. Off side of wicketThe off side of the striker’s wicket shall be determined by the striker’s stance at the moment the ball comes into play for that delivery. See Appendix D.

Law 37 (Obstructing the field)
1. Out Obstructing the fieldEither batsman is out Obstructing the field if he wilfully obstructs or distracts the fielding side by word or action. Furthermore, it shall be regarded as obstruction if while the ball is in play either batsman wilfully, and without the consent of a fielder, strikes the ball with his bat or person, other than a hand not holding the bat, after the ball has been touched by a fielder. This shall apply whether or not there is any disadvantage to the fielding side. See 4 below.2. Accidental obstructionIt is for either umpire to decide whether any obstruction or distraction is wilful or not. He shall consult the other umpire if he has any doubt.3. Obstructing a ball from being caughtThe striker is out should wilful obstruction or distraction by either batsman prevent a catch being made.This shall apply even though the striker causes the obstruction in lawfully guarding his wicket under the provisions of Law 34.3 (Ball lawfully struck more than once).4. Returning the ball to a fielderEither batsman is out Obstructing the field if, without the consent of a fielder and while the ball is in play, he uses his bat or person, other than a hand not holding the bat, to return the ball to any fielder.5. Runs scoredIf either batsman is dismissed Obstructing the field, runs completed by the batsmen before the offence shall be scored, together with any runs for penalties awarded to either side. See Laws 18.6 (Runs awarded for penalties) and 18.9 (Runs scored when a batsman is dismissed).If, however the obstruction prevents a catch from being made, runs completed by the batsmen before the offence shall not be scored, but any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall stand.6. Bowler does not get creditThe bowler does not get credit for the wicket.

Law 38 (Run out)
1. Out Run out(a) Either batsman is out Run out, except as in 2 below, if, at any time while the ball is in play,(i) he is out of his groundand (ii) his wicket is fairly put down by the action of a fielder.(b) (a) above shall apply even though No ball has been called and whether or not a run is being attempted, except in the circumstances of 2(e) below.2. Batsman not Run outNotwithstanding 1 above, a batman is not out Run out if(a) he has been within his ground and has subsequently left it to avoid injury, when the wicket is put down.Note also the provisions of Law 29.1(b) (When out of his ground)(b) the ball has not subsequently been touched by a fielder, after the bowler has entered his delivery stride, before the wicket is put down.(c) the ball, having been played by the striker, or having come off his person, directly strikes a protective helmet worn by a fielder and without further contact with him or any other fielder rebounds directly on to the wicket. However, the ball remains in play and either batsman may be Run out in the circumstances of 1 above if a wicket is subsequently put down.(d) he is out Stumped. See Law 39.1(b) (Out Stumped).(e) No ball has been calledand (i) he is out of his ground not attempting a runand (ii) the wicket is fairly put down by the wicket-keeper without the intervention of another fielder.3. Which batsman is outThe batsman out in the circumstances of 1 above is the one whose ground is at the end where the wicket is put down. See Laws 2.8 (Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner) and 29.2 (Which is a batsman’s ground).4. Runs scoredIf either batsman is dismissed Run out, the run in progress when the wicket is put down shall not be scored, but runs completed by the batsmen shall stand, together with any runs for penalties awarded to either side. See Laws 18.6 (Runs awarded for penalties) and 18.9 (Runs scored when a batsman is dismissed).If, however, a striker who has a runner is himself dismissed Run out, runs completed by the runner and the other batsman before the wicket is put down shall not be scored, but any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall stand. See Law 2.8 (Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner).5. Bowler does not get creditThe bowler does not get credit for the wicket.

Law 39 (Stumped)
1. Out Stumped(a) The striker is out Stumped, except as in 3 below, if(i) a ball which is not a No ball is deliveredand (ii) he is out of his ground, other than as in 3(a) belowand (iii) he has not attempted a runwhen (iv) his wicket is fairly put down by the wicket-keeper without the intervention of another fielder. Note, however Laws 2.8(c) (Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner) and 40.3 (Position of wicket-keeper).(b) The striker is out Stumped if all the conditions of (a) above are satisfied, even though a decision of Run out would be justified.2. Ball rebounding from wicket-keeper’s person(a) If the wicket is put down by the ball, it shall be regarded as having been put down by the wicket-keeper if the ball(i) rebounds on to the stumps from any part of the wicket-keeper’s person or equipment other than a protective helmetor (ii) has been kicked or thrown on to the stumps by the wicket-keeper.(b) If the ball touches a protective helmet worn by the wicket-keeper, the ball is still in play but the striker shall not be out Stumped. He will, however, be liable to be Run out in these circumstances if there is subsequent contact between the ball and any fielder. Note, however, 3 below.3. Not out Stumped(a) Notwithstanding 1 above, the striker will not be out Stumped if he has left his ground to avoid injury, when his wicket is put down.(b) If the striker is not out Stumped he may, except in the circumstances of Law 38.2(e), be out Run out if the conditions of Law 38 (Run out) apply.

Law 40 (The wicket-keeper)
1. Protective equipmentThe wicket-keeper is the only fielder permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards. If he does so these are to be regarded as part of his person for the purposes of Law 41.2 (Fielding the ball). If by his actions and positioning it is apparent to the umpires that he will not be able to discharge his duties as a wicket-keeper, he shall forfeit this right and also the right to be recognised as a wicket-keeper for the purposes of Laws 32.3 (A fair catch), 39 (Stumped), 41.1 (Protective equipment ), 41.5 (Limitation of on-side fielders) and 41.6 (Fielders not to encroach on pitch).2. GlovesIf, as permitted under 1 above, the wicket-keeper wears gloves, they shall have no webbing between the fingers except joining index finger and thumb, where webbing may be inserted as a means of support. If used, the webbing shall be(a) a single piece of non-stretch material which, although it may have facing material attached, shall have no reinforcements or tucks.(b) such that the top edge of the webbing(i) does not protrude beyond the straight line joining the top of the index finger to the top of the thumb.(ii) is taut when a hand wearing the glove has the thumb fully extended.See Appendix C.3. Position of wicket-keeperThe wicket-keeper shall remain wholly behind the wicket at the striker’s end from the moment the ball comes into play until(a) a ball delivered by the bowlereither (i) touches the bat or person of the strikeror (ii) passes the wicket at the striker’s endor (b) the striker attempts a run.In the event of the wicket-keeper contravening this Law, the striker’s end umpire shall call and signal No ball as soon as possible after the delivery of the ball.4. Movement by wicket-keeperIt is unfair if the wicket-keeper standing back makes a significant movement towards the wicket after the ball comes into play and before it reaches the striker. In the event of such unfair movement by the wicket-keeper, either umpire shall call and signal Dead ball. It will not be considered a significant movement if the wicket-keeper moves a few paces forward for a slower delivery.5. Restriction on actions of wicket-keeperIf, in the opinion of either umpire, the wicket-keeper interferes with the striker’s right to play the ball and to guard his wicket, Law 23.4(b)(vi) (Umpire calling and signalling Dead ball) shall apply.If, however, either umpire considers that the interference by the wicket-keeper was wilful, then Law 42.4 (Deliberate attempt to distract striker) shall also apply.6. Interference with wicket-keeper by strikerIf, in playing at the ball or in the legitimate defence of his wicket, the striker interferes with the wicket-keeper, he shall not be out except as provided for in Law 37.3 (Obstructing a ball from being caught).

Law 41 (The fielder)
1. Protective equipmentNo fielder other than the wicket-keeper shall be permitted to wear gloves or external leg guards. In addition, protection for the hand or fingers may be worn only with the consent of the umpires.2. Fielding the ballA fielder may field the ball with any part of his person, but if, while the ball is in play, he wilfully fields it otherwise,(a) the ball shall immediately become dead.and (b) the umpire shall(i) award 5 penalty runs to the batting side.(ii) The penalty for a No ball or a Wide shall stand. Additionally, runs completed by the batsmen shall be credited to the batting side, together with the run in progress if the batsmen had already crossed at the instant of the offence.(iii) inform the other umpire and the captain of the fielding side of the reason for this action.(iv) inform the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(c) The ball shall not count as one of the over.(d) The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and the player or players concerned.3. Protective helmets belonging to the fielding sideProtective helmets, when not in use by fielders, should, if above the surface, be placed only on the ground behind the wicket-keeper and in line with both sets of stumps. If a protective helmet belonging to the fielding side is on the ground within the field of play, and the ball while in play strikes it, the ball shall become dead, and 5 penalty runs shall then be awarded to the batting side, in addition to the penalty for a No ball or a Wide, if applicable. Additionally runs completed by the batsmen before the ball strikes the protective helmet shall be scored, together with the run in progress if the batsmen had already crossed at the instant of the ball striking the protective helmet. See Law 18.10 (Runs scored when the ball becomes dead other than at the fall of a wicket).4. Penalty runs not to be awardedNotwithstanding 2 and 3 above, if from the delivery by the bowler, the ball first struck the person of the striker and, if in the opinion of the umpire, the strikerneither (i) attempted to play the ball with his batnor (ii) tried to avoid being hit by the ball,then no award of 5 penalty runs shall be made and no other runs or penalties shall be credited to the batting side except the penalty for a No ball, if applicable. If runs are attempted, the umpire should follow the procedure laid down in Law 26.3 (Leg byes not to be awarded).5. Limitation of on side fieldersAt the instant of the bowler’s delivery there shall not be more than two fielders, other than the wicket-keeper, behind the popping crease on the on side. A fielder will be considered to be behind the popping crease unless the whole of his person whether grounded or in the air is in front of this line.In the event of infringement of this Law by any fielder, the striker’s end umpire shall call and signal No ball.6. Fielders not to encroach on pitchWhile the ball is in play and until the ball has made contact with the striker’s bat or person, or has passed the striker’s bat, no fielder, other than the bowler, may have any part of his person grounded on or extended over the pitch.In the event of infringement of this Law by any fielder other than the wicket-keeper, the bowler’s end umpire shall call and signal No ball as soon as possible after delivery of the ball. Note, however, Law 40.3 (Position of wicket-keeper).7. Movement by fieldersAny significant movement by any fielder after the ball comes into play, and before the ball reaches the striker, is unfair. In the event of such unfair movement, either umpire shall call and signal Dead ball. Note also the provisions of Law 42.4 (Deliberate attempt to distract striker).8. Definition of significant movement(a) For close fielders anything other than minor adjustments to stance or position in relation to the striker is significant.(b) In the outfield, fielders are permitted to move towards the striker or the striker’s wicket, provided that 5 above is not contravened. Anything other than slight movement off line or away from the striker is to be considered significant.(c) For restrictions on movement by the wicket-keeper see Law 40.4 (Movement by wicket-keeper).

Law 42 (Fair and unfair play)
1. Fair and unfair play – responsibility of captainsThe responsibility lies with the captains for ensuring that play is conducted within the spirit and traditions of the game, as described in The Preamble – The Spirit of Cricket, as well as within the Laws.2. Fair and unfair play – responsibility of umpiresThe umpires shall be the sole judges of fair and unfair play. If either umpire considers an action, not covered by the Laws, to be unfair he shall intervene without appeal and, if the ball is in play, call and signal Dead ball and implement the procedure as set out in 18 below. Otherwise umpires shall not interfere with the progress of play without appeal except as required to do so by the Laws.3. The match ball – changing its condition(a) Any fielder may (i) polish the ball provided that no artificial substance is used and that such polishing wastes no time.(ii) remove mud from the ball under the supervision of the umpire.(iii) dry a wet ball on a piece of cloth.(b) It is unfair for anyone to rub the ball on the ground for any reason, to interfere with any of the seams or the surface of the ball, to use any implement, or to take any other action whatsoever which is likely to alter the condition of the ball, except as permitted in (a) above.(c) The umpires shall make frequent and irregular inspections of the ball.(d) If the umpires together agree that the deterioration in the condition of the ball is greater than is consistent with the use it has received, they shall consider that there has been a contravention of this Law. They shall(i) change the ball forthwith. It shall be for the umpires to decide on the replacement ball. It shall, in their opinion, have had wear comparable to that which the previous ball had received immediately prior to the contravention.Additionally the bowler’s end umpire shall(ii) award 5 penalty runs to the batting side.(iii) inform the batsmen that the ball has been changed.(iv) inform the captain of the fielding side that the reason for the action was the unfair interference with the ball.(v) inform the captain of the batting side as soon as practicable of what has occurred.(vi) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and team concerned.(e) If the umpires together agree that there has been any further instance in that innings of greater deterioration in the condition of the ball than is consistent with the use it has received, they shall(i) repeat the procedure in (d)(i), (ii) and (iii) aboveAdditionally the bowler’s end umpire shall(ii) inform the captain of the fielding side of the reason for the action taken and direct him to suspend the bowler forthwith who delivered the immediately preceding ball. The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings. If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.(iii) inform the captain of the batting side as soon as practicable of what has occurred.(iv) together with the other umpire report the further occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and team concerned.4. Deliberate attempt to distract strikerIt is unfair for any fielder deliberately to attempt to distract the striker while he is preparing to receive or receiving a delivery.(a) If either umpire considers that any action by a fielder is such an attempt, at the first instance he shall immediately call and signal Dead ball and inform the other umpire of the reason for the call. The bowler’s end umpire shall(i) warn the captain of the fielding side that the action is unfair and indicate that this is a first and final warning.(ii) inform the batsmen of what has occurred.Neither batsman shall be dismissed from that delivery. The ball shall not count as one of the over.(b) If there is any further such deliberate attempt by any fielder in that innings, the procedures, other than warning, as set out in (a) above shall apply. Additionally, the bowler’s end umpire shall(i) award 5 penalty runs to the batting side.(ii) inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for the action.(iii) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and the player or players concerned.5. Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsmanIn addition to 4 above, it is unfair for any fielder wilfully to attempt, by word or action, to distract or obstruct either batsman after the striker has received the ball.(a) It is for either one of the umpires to decide whether any distraction or obstruction is wilful or not.(b) If either umpire considers that a fielder has caused or attempted to cause such a distraction or obstruction, he shall immediately call and signal Dead ball and inform the other umpire of the reason for the call.(c) Neither batsman shall be dismissed from that delivery.Additionally(d) The bowler’s end umpire shall (i) award 5 penalty runs to the batting side.(ii) inform the captain of the fielding side of the reason for this action and as soon as practicable inform the captain of the batting side.(e) The ball shall not count as one of the over.(f) Runs completed by the batsmen before the offence shall be scored, together with any runs for penalties awarded to either side. Additionally, the run in progress shall be scored whether or not the batsmen had already crossed at the instant of the offence.(g) The batsmen at the wicket shall decide which of them is to face the next delivery.(h) The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and player or players concerned.6. Dangerous and unfair bowling(a) Bowling of fast short pitched balls(i) The bowling of fast short pitched balls is dangerous and unfair if the bowler’s end umpire considers that by their repetition and taking into account their length, height and direction they are likely to inflict physical injury on the striker irrespective of the protective equipment he may be wearing. The relative skill of the striker shall be taken into consideration.(ii) Any delivery which, after pitching, passes or would have passed over head height of the striker standing upright at the popping crease, although not threatening physical injury, shall be included with bowling under (i) above, both when the umpire is considering whether the bowling of fast short pitched balls has become dangerous and unfair and after he has so decided. The umpire shall call and signal No ball for each such delivery.(b) Bowling of high full pitched balls(i) Any delivery, other than a slow paced one, which passes or would have passed on the full above waist height of the striker standing upright at the popping crease is to be deemed dangerous and unfair, whether or not it is likely to inflict physical injury on the striker.(ii) A slow delivery which passes or would have passed on the full above shoulder height of the striker standing upright at the popping crease is to be deemed dangerous and unfair, whether or not it is likely to inflict physical injury on the striker.7. Dangerous and unfair bowling – action by the umpire(a) As soon as the bowler’s end umpire decides under 6(a) above that the bowling of fast short pitched balls has become dangerous and unfair, or, except as in 8 below, there is an instance of dangerous and unfair bowling as defined in 6(b) above, he shall call and signal No ball. When the ball is dead, he shall caution the bowler, inform the other umpire, the captain of the fielding side and the batsmen of what has occurred. This caution shall apply throughout the innings.(b) If there is any further instance of dangerous and unfair bowling by the same bowler in that innings, the umpire shall repeat the above procedure and indicate to the bowler that this is a final warning.This warning shall also apply throughout the innings.(c) Should there be any further repetition by the same bowler in that innings, the umpire shall call and signal No ball and (i) when the ball is dead direct the captain to suspend the bowler forthwith and inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.Additionally he shall(ii) report the occurrence to the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, to the captain of the batting side.(iii) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and bowler concerned.8. Deliberate bowling of high full pitched ballsIf the umpire considers that a bowler deliberately bowled a high full pitched ball, deemed to be dangerous and unfair as defined in 6(b) above, then the caution and warning prescribed in 7 above shall be dispensed with. The umpire shall(a) (i) call and signal No ball.(ii) when the ball is dead direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler forthwith. The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.(iii) inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.(b) report the occurrence to the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, to the captain of the batting side.(c) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and bowler concerned.9. Time wasting by the fielding sideIt is unfair for any fielder to waste time. (a) If either umpire considers that the progress of an over is unnecessarily slow, or time is being wasted in any other way, by the captain of the fielding side or by any other fielder, at the first instance the umpire concerned shall(i) if the ball is in play, call and signal Dead ball.(ii) inform the other umpire of what has occurred.(b) The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) warn the captain of the fielding side, indicating that this is a first and final warning.(ii) inform the batsmen of what has occurred.(c) If either umpire considers that there is any further waste of time in that innings by any fielder, he shall (i) if the ball is in play, call and signal Dead ball.(ii) inform the other umpire of what has occurred.The bowler’s end umpire shall(iii) either, if the waste of time is not during an over, award 5 penalty runs to the batting side and inform the captain of the fielding side of the reason for this actionor, if the waste of time is during the course of an over, direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler forthwith. The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.(iv) inform the batsmen and, as soon as is practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(v) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and team concerned.10. Batsman wasting timeIt is unfair for a batsman to waste time. In normal circumstances, the striker should always be ready to take strike when the bowler is ready to start his run up.(a) Should either batsman waste time by failing to meet this requirement, or in any other way, the following procedure shall be adopted. At the first instance, either before the bowler starts his run up or when the ball becomes dead, as appropriate, the umpire shall(i) warn both batsmen and indicate that this is a first and final warning. This warning shall apply throughout the innings. The umpire shall so inform each incoming batsman.(ii) inform the other umpire of what has occurred.(iii) inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(b) If there is any further time wasting by any batsman in that innings, the umpire shall, at the appropriate time while the ball is dead(i) award 5 penalty runs to the fielding side. (ii) inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.(iii) inform the other batsman, the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(iv) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the batting side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and player or players and, if appropriate, team concerned.11. Damaging the pitch – area to be protectedVideo: An explanation of the 2010 change to Law 42 (a) It is incumbent on all players to avoid unnecessary damage to the pitch. A player will be deemed to be causing avoidable damage if either umpire considers that his presence on the pitch is without reasonable cause.It is unfair to cause deliberate damage to the pitch.(b) An area of the pitch, to be referred to as ‘the protected area’, is defined as that area contained within a rectangle bounded at each end by imaginary lines parallel to the popping creases and 5 ft/1.52 m front of each, and on the sides by imaginary lines, one each side of the imaginary line joining the centres of the two middle stumps, each parallel to it and 1 ft/30.48 cm from it.12. Bowler running on protected area after delivering the ball(a) A bowler will contravene this Law if he runs on to the protected area, either after delivering the ball or, if he fails to release the ball, after the completion of his delivery swing and delivery stride. See 11 above, Law 23.4(viii) (Umpire calling and signalling Dead ball) and Appendix D.(b) If, as defined in (a) above, the bowler contravenes this Law, at the first instance and when the ball is dead, the umpire shall(i) caution the bowler and inform the other umpire of what has occurred.This caution shall apply throughout the innings.(ii) inform the captain of the fielding side and the batsmen of what has occurred.(c) If, in that innings, the same bowler again contravenes this Law, the umpire shall repeat the above procedure indicating that this is a final warning. This warning shall also apply throughout the innings.(d) If in that innings the same bowler contravenes this Law a third time, the umpire shall,(i) when the ball is dead, direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler forthwith.The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.(ii) inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.(iii) inform the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(iv) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and bowler concerned.13. Fielder damaging the pitch(a) If any fielder causes avoidable damage to the pitch, other than as in 12(a) above, at the first instance the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire. The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) caution the captain of the fielding side and indicate that this is a first and final warning. This warning shall apply throughout the innings.(ii) inform the batsmen of what has occurred.(b) If, in that innings, there is any further instance of avoidable damage to the pitch, by any fielder, the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire. The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) award 5 penalty runs to the batting side.Additionally he shall(ii) inform the fielding captain of the reason for this action.(iii) inform the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(iv) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and player or players concerned.14. Batsman damaging the pitch(a) If either batsman causes avoidable damage to the pitch, at the first instance the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of the occurrence. The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) warn both batsmen that the practice is unfair and indicate that this is a first and final warning. This warning shall apply throughout the innings. The umpire shall so inform each incoming batsman.(ii) inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(b) If there is any further instance of avoidable damage to the pitch by any batsman in that innings, the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of the occurrence. The bowler’s end umpire shall then(i) disallow all runs to the batting side from that delivery other than the penalty for a No ball or a Wide, if applicable.(ii) additionally, award 5 penalty runs to the fielding side.(iii) return the batsmen to their original ends. (iv) inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.(c) The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the batting side and to any Governing Body for the match who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and player or players concerned.15. Bowler attempting to run out non-striker before deliveryThe bowler is permitted, before entering his delivery stride, to attempt to run out the non-striker. Whether the attempt is successful or not, the ball shall not count as one of the over.If the bowler fails in an attempt to run out the non-striker, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball as soon possible.16. Batsman stealing a runIt is unfair for the batsmen to attempt to steal a run during the bowler’s run up. Unless the bowler attempts to run out either batsman – see 15 above and Law 24.4 (Bowler throwing towards striker’s end before delivery) – the umpire shall(i) call and signal Dead ball as soon as the batsmen cross in such an attempt.(ii) inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.(iii) return the batsmen to their original ends.(iv) award 5 penalty runs to the fielding side.(v) inform the batsmen, the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side, of the reason for this action.(vi) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the batting side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and players concerned.17. Penalty runs(a) When penalty runs are awarded to either side, when the ball is dead the umpire shall signal the penalty runs to the scorers. See Law 3.14 (Signals).(b) Notwithstanding the provisions, of Law 21.6 (Winning hit or extras), penalty runs shall be awarded in each case where the Laws require the award.Note, however, that the restrictions on awarding penalty runs, in Laws 26.3 (Leg byes not to be awarded), 34.4 (Runs scored from ball lawfully struck more than once) and Law 41.4 (Penalty runs not to be awarded), will apply.(c) When 5 penalty runs are awarded to the batting side under any of Laws 2.6 (Player returning without permission), 41.2 (Fielding the ball), or 41.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side) or under 3, 4, 5, 9 or 13 above, then(i) they shall be scored as penalty extras and shall be in addition to any other penalties.(ii) they are awarded when the ball is dead and shall not be regarded as runs scored from either the immediately preceding delivery or the immediately following delivery, and shall be in addition to any runs from those deliveries.(iii) the batsmen shall not change ends solely by reason of the 5 run penalty.(d) When 5 penalty runs are awarded to the fielding side, under Law 18.5(b) (Deliberate short runs), or under 10, 14 or 16 above, they shall be added as penalty extras to that side’s total of runs in its most recently completed innings. If the fielding side has not completed an innings, the 5 penalty runs shall be added to the score in its next innings.18. Players’ conductIf there is any breach of the Spirit of the Game either in the case of an unfair action not covered by the Laws, under 2 above,or by a playereither failing to comply with the instructions of an umpireor criticising an umpire’s decisions by word or actionor showing dissentor generally behaving in a manner which might bring the game into disrepute,the umpire concerned shall immediately report the matter to the other umpire.The umpires together shall(i) inform the player’s captain of the occurrence, instructing the latter to take action.(ii) warn him of the gravity of the offence, and tell him it will be reported to higher authority.(iii) report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the player’s team and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and player or players and, if appropriate, team concerned.

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